Презентация к уроку по окружающему миру (1 класс) по теме:
"Планеты солнечной системы". Презентация - ознакомление. 1 класс.

Мизга Ольга Борисовна
Данная презентация для многих ребят - первое знакомство с планетами солнечной системы.

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Планеты Солнечной Системы

1 класс

Составитель: Мизга Ольга Борисовна


* a solar system is a star with orbiting bodies

*Our star, Sol, has nine planets orbiting it

*The inner solar system contains the sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars

*The outer solar system contains Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto

*The planets orbit (go round) the sun in ellipses. The time this takes is a planetary year

*A planet is a major body that circles the sun. Smaller bodies orbiting the sun are called planetoids. Other bodies that orbit the sun include comets and asteroids

*The planets all rotate about the sun in the same direction (counter-clockwise)

*The planets of the sun all orbit in about the same plane

*The inner planets are small and mostly composed of rock and iron

*The outer planets (except Pluto) are large and mostly composed of gas (hydrogen and helium) and ice

*One theory says that all the planets were formed at the same time from a condensing cloud of gas that also formed the sun.

*We have recently found planets orbiting other stars

Меркурий

Mercury

*Mercury is the closest planet to the sun.

*One Astronmical Unit = 150 million kilometres. Mercury is 0.387 AU from the sun

*It is the second- smallest planet

*It orbits the sun in 87 days

*It takes 59 days for Mercury to spin on its axis

*It weighs only 6% of what the Earth masses

*It is about 38% the diameter of the Earth

*The surface temperature ranges from 100oK to 543oK (-173oC to over 270oC)

*It has no moons

*It is named after the Winged Messenger to the gods

*It is mostly made of iron

*It has very little atmosphere

*Mercury has many craters - it has been hit many times by meteorites, espcially early in its history

*The first man-made satellite to send back pictures of Mercury was called Mariner 10







Венера

Venus

*Venus is the second-closest planet from the sun

*It is usually 0.72 AU from the sun

*It is the sixth-largest planet

*It orbits the sun in 224.7 days

*It spins on its axis in the *opposite* direction to Earth (counter-revolutionary) and this takes 243 days

*It masses about 82% of the Earth's mass

*The surface temperature is about 462oC - the hottest planet in the solar system

*It has no moons

*It is named after the goddess of love

*It is mostly made of iron

*It has an atmosphere of sulfuric acid and carbon dioxide that has produced a "greenhouse effect"

*We can see the surface of Venus by using radar images

*It was first visited by Mariner 2 in 1962

*The USSR's Venera 7 landed on Venus and was the first probe to land on another planet

*Venus is easily seen from Earth and is the brightest object in the sky. It is often wrongly called the "morning star" or "evening star"

*It is often called Earth's sister planet because the two planets are so similar in size. The mystery is why the turned out so differently.




Земля

Earth

*The Earth is the third closest planet to the sun

*Earth is one astronomical unit away from the sun

*It orbits the sun in 365.25 days

*It takes 24 hours for Earth to rotate on its axis

*It weighs 5.98 x 10^24kg

*It is 12 800kms wide

*The surface temperature varies between -88oC and 58oC

*It has one moon - "Luna"

*It has an atmosphere of nitrogen, oxygen and argon

*Earth is the only known planet to support life as we know it

*It has abundant water on the surface

*It is where we live!

*This photo was taken by Apollo 17 in 1972 - you can see Africa and Arabia and Antartica. Australia would be to the far right.

Марс

Mars

*Mars is the last planet of the inner solar system

*It is the fourth planet from the sun

*It is usually 1.524 Au from the sun

*It takes 1.9 earth years to orbit the sun

*It takes 24.5 hours to spin on its axis

*It masses about 11% of the Earth

*It is 53% as wide as the Earth

*The surface temperature ranges between -140oC and 20oC

*It has two moons - Phobos and Deimos

*It is named after the god of war

*It has a thin atmosphere of carbon dioxide (95%),nitrogen, argon and water

*Its low density probably relates to a core of iron and iron sulfide

*It may have had running water at some time in the past

*It may have liquid water on the surface now (this is a point of much investigation)

*The polar caps are made of solid carbon dioxide

Юпитер

Jupiter

*Jupiter is the fifth planet of the solar system. It is the first planet of the outer solar system

*It is 5.20 AU from the sun

*It orbits the sun in 12 years

*It rotates about its axis in 10 hours

*It masses more than twice all the other planets combined, 320 times that of Earth

*Its diameter is 1300 times that of Earth

*It has a gaseous surface

*It has at least sixteen moons and a minor ring system. The moons are mostly named after Zeus (Jupiter's) lovers

*It is named after the King of the Gods, ruler of Olympus and patron of the Roman states

*It is mostly made of about 90% hydrogen and 10% helium (by numbers of atoms, 75/25% by mass) with traces of methane, water, ammonia and "rock"

*It may have a core of rocky material. Most of the plaet is probably liquid metallic hydrogen

*1n 1994 a comet (Shoemaker-Levy) crashed into Jupiter -- the debris could be seen easily with a telescope

*The Great Red Spot (GRS) discovery is usually attributed to Cassini, or Robert Hooke in the 17th century.

*The GRS is an oval about 12,000 by 25,000 km, big enough to hold two Earths.

* Infrared observations and the direction of its rotation indicate that the GRS is a high-pressure region whose cloud tops are significantly higher and colder than the surrounding regions.

Сатурн

Saturn

*Saturn is the sixth planet from the sun

*It is 9.54 AU from the sun

*It orbits the sun in 29.5 years

*It takes 11 hours for Saturn to spin on its axis

*It weighs 95 times that of the Earth

*It is 9.42 times wider than the Earth

*It has a gaseous surface.

* Saturn's interior is hot (12000 K at the core)

*It is named after Zeus' father, the god of agriculture

*Saturn has 18 named moons

*It has the best developed ring system in the Solar sytem

*The rings were discovered by Gallileo using an early telescope

*The rings are very thin - ony 1.5km wide




Уран

Uranus

*Seventh planet from the sun

*19.218 AU from the sun

*Orbits the sun in 84 years

*Rotates on its axis over 17 hours

*Third largest planet

*Mass 14.5 x Earth

*Radius is 4.1 that of Earth

*It has a ring system and 21 known moons. The moons are named after Shakespearean characters.

*It is named after the ancient Greek deity of the heavens

*It is the first planet to be discovered in modern times -- by Herschel

*It has been visited by only one spacecraft - Voyager II

*Uranus rotates about an axis parallel to the ecliptic -- this is very unusual

*Uranus is composed primarily of rock and various ices, with only about 15% hydrogen and a little helium * Uranus (and Neptune) are in many ways similar to the cores of Jupiter and Saturn minus the massive liquid metallic hydrogen envelope.

* It appears that Uranus does not have a rocky core like Jupiter and Saturn but rather that its material is more or less uniformly distributed.




* Uranus' atmosphere is about 83% hydrogen, 15% helium and 2% methane.







Нептун

Neptune

*Neptune is usually the 8th planet from the sun. Its orbit intersects with that of Pluto so occasionally it is the most distant planet

*It is usually 30 AU from the sun

*It orbits the sun over 165 years

*It rotates about its axis over 16 hours

*It masses 17x that of the Earth

*Its radius is 3,88 x that of the Earth

*It has a ring system and 8 known moons; 7 small ones and Triton.

*It is named after the god of the sea

*Neptune's blue color is largely the result of absorption of red light by methane in the atmosphere but there is some additional as-yet-unidentified chromophore which gives the clouds their rich blue tint.

*Neptune has been visited by Voyager 2 and observed by the Hubble Space Telescope

*Neptune's Great Dark Spot disappeared

Плутон и Харон

Pluto and Charon

*Pluto is the furthest planet from the sun.

*It has a satellite - Charon - that is almost as big as it -- some people call Pluto and Charon together a "double planet"

*They orbit the sun every 248 years

*Pluto has an eccentric axis which it rotates around each 6.5 days

*It has a surface temp of- 230oC

*Little is known about its atmosphere

*It is 2400km in diameter

*It is the smallest planet

*It is hard to calculate the individual masses of Pluto and Charon

*It is named after the god of the Underworld

*It was discovered by Percival Lowell

*It is the only planet not yet visited by a human spacecraft


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