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    Григорьева Ольга Сергеевна

    На этой странице представлены некоторые материалы для подготовки к экзаменам по английскому языку в 9 и 11 классах. Я буду очень рада, если они кому-то будут полезны.

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    Present Simple

    Past Simple

    Future Simple

    1) Для выражения обычного или периодически повторяющегося действия или состояния.

    I usually go away at weekends.
    2) Для выражения действия, которое совершается в момент речи с глаголом, которые не употребляются во временах. Continuous.
    Ann does not seem very happy at the moment.
    3) Вместо Future Simple с глаголами, выражающими заранее запланированное действие (to go, to come, to leave, to begin и т.д.).
    The train leaves Moscow at 10 and arrives in St. Petersburg at 17:15.
    4) Для выражения будущего действия в придаточных времени и условия после союзов: when, if, unless, till, until, before, as soon as, while и т.д.

    I will phone you when I get home from work.

    1) Для обозначения действия, совершившегося в прошлом. Время совершения действия часто определяется наречием времени, обозначающим прошедшее время: yesterday, three days ago, last week, last month, in 1995. I met him two days ago.
    2) Для выражения нескольких действий, непосредственно следовавших одно за другим.
    Yesterday I got up early, brought my room up, had breakfast and went to school.
    3) В вопросе, который начинается с вопросительного слова when.

    When did you meet him?

    1) Для выражения действия, которое относится к будущему времени. They will go to the Zoo next week.
    2) Для выражения решений, принятых в момент речи.
    It is a bit cold in the room. I will close the window.
    3) Для выражения обещания или согласия на выполнение какого-либо действия.
    Thanks for lending me the money. I will pay you back on Friday.
    4) Для выражения просьбы о выполнении какого-либо действия.
    Will you shut the door, please?
    5) В вопросе, с целью узнать чье-либо мнение.
    Shall I open the window?

    6) Для выражения прогнозируемого события или действия. Where will you be this time next year?

    Present Continuous

    Past Continuous

    Future Continuous

    1) Для выражения действия, происходящего в момент речи. I am reading the rules of English Grammar now.
    2) Для выражения действия, происходящего в более длительный период времени в настоящем, включая момент речи.
    Kate wants to work in France, so she is learning French.
    3) Для выражения будущего, заранее запланированного действия.
    What time is she arriving tomorrow? At 10 I'm meeting her at the station.
    4) Для выражения временного действия, происходящего в настоящий период времени, связанный с настоящим моментом.
    She is working hard today. She has a lot to do.
    5) Для выражения раздражения по поводу часто повторяющегося действия со словом always.

    She is always leaving the lights on!

    1) Для выражения длительного незаконченного действия, имевшего место в определенный момент в прошлом. I saw you in the park yesterday. You were sitting on the bench and reading a book.
    2) Когда два длительных действия совершались одновременно, оба они могут быть выражены в Past Continuous.
    I was doing my homework while my mother was cooking the dinner.
    Период, когда совершалось действие, может определяться:

    а) выражениями: From 2 to 5 o'clock, all day long, all the time. She was playing the piano from 3 to 5 o'clock yesterday.

    б) временем, когда одно действие совершалось в период действия другого. When I was going to school yesterday, I met my friends.

    1) Для выражения действия, которое будет происходить в определенный момент времени в будущем. Это действие будет иметь незаконченный характер; говорящий хочет подчеркнуть длительный характер этого действия.

    This time next week, I will be lying on a beach or swimming in the sea. 

    Present Perfect

    Past Perfect

    Future Perfect

    1) Для выражения законченного действия, которое имеет тесную связь с настоящим временем по своим результатам. I have lost my key so I cannot get home.
    2)  Важно не время совершения действия, а его результат. Оно обозначается наречиями: ever, never, already, just, not yet.
    I am not hungry, I have just had lunch.
    3) Present Perfect употребляется с наречиями времени: today, this month, this year. I've drunk two cups of coffee today.
    4) Переводится прошедшим временем, но иногда для выражения действия, которое началось в прошлом и продолжается в момент речи, переводится на русский язык настоящим временем:

    а) указано начало действия since;

     б) указан весь период времени for two days, for ten minutes. I have known him for ten years. I have known him since 1990.

    1) Для выражения действия, которое было закончено до определенного момента в прошлом. Этот момент определяется:

    а) Выражениями: by 4 o'clock, by that time, by the end of the year.

     He had returned from the cinema by 5 o’clock;

     б) другим прошедшим действием, которое произошло позднее и которое выражается глаголом в Past Simple.

    When we arrived at the cinema, the film had already begun.

    1) Для выражения действия, которое закончится до определенного момента в будущем. Этот момент определяется:

    а) Выражениями: by 4 o’clock, by that time, by the end of the year.

     He will have returned from the cinema by 5 o'clock.
    б) другим действием в будущем, которое произошло позднее и которое выражается глаголом в Present Simple или Future Simple
    .

    By the time she gets home, I will have driven for 2 hours/

    I will go after I will have finished my project.



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    Памятка

    Успешное выполнение заданий ЕГЭ по английскому языку на словообразование (Задания В11 –В16)

    Рекомендуемое время выполнения - 10-15 минут.

    1. Прочитайте предложение, переведите его и определите, какая часть речи пропущена - глагол, существительное, прилагательное или наречие.
    2. С помощью приставок или суффиксов измените исходное слово, находящееся в конце строки. Если считаете, что часть речи должна остаться исходной, то скорее всего здесь будет работать приставка.
    3. Определите, имеет ли слово положительное или отрицательное значение, исходя из контекста, и в случае необходимости добавьте отрицательную приставку или измените на отрицательный суффикс.
    4. В английском языке существует огромное количество приставок и суффиксов, но к счастью, известен список тех, которые вероятнее всего могут встретиться в экзаменационной работе. Вот этот список.

                                               Суффиксы существительных:

    -ment: management, improvement, movement (у глагола не отсекается конечная –е);

    -tion/-sion: translation, information, discussion;

    -ance/-ence: appearance, finance, influence;

    -ness: weakness, happiness, darkness;

    -ity: popularity, stupidity, ability;

    -ship: friendship, leadership, relationship;

    -er/-or: dancer, driver, actor, sailor;

    -ist: artist, journalist, psychologist;

    - ing: swimming, collecting

    Суффиксы прилагательных:

    -y: cloudy, sunny, noisy, dirty, foggy;

    -ic: athletic, fantastic, scientific;

    -ful: careful, helpful, useful, thoughtful;

    -al: musical, political, cultural;

    -ian/-an: Canadian, Egyptian, African;

    -ing: interesting, amazing, exciting;

    -able/-ible: enjoyable, comfortable, flexible, visible;

    -less: homeless, useless, careless;

    -ive: active, creative, sensitive.

    - ous: adventurous, courageous

    Суффикс наречий:

    -ly: possibly, successfully, quietly, angrily.

    Суффикс глаголов:

    -ize(American)/-ise(British): criticize, modernize, organise.

    Приставки глаголов:

    re-: remake, rewrite;

    dis-: disconnect, disagree, disappear;

    mis-: misunderstand, mislead, misinform.

                         Отрицательные приставки (относятся к разным частям речи):

    un-: unfair, unknown, unemployment, unlock, unpack;

    in-: incorrect, inexpensive, inability, inaccuracy;

    im-: impatient, impolite, impossible, immoral

    il-: illegal

                                                   Приставка прилагательных:

    -inter: international, interlocutor (собеседник)

    И последнее! Будьте внимательны со словами, которые меняют свою орфографию при переходе из одной части речи в другую. Например, strong – strength – strengthen (сильный – сила-усиливать), wide – width – widen (широкий – широта – расширять), high – height (высокий – высота), deep – depth (глубокий – глубина), dead – death (мёртвый – смерть).



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    C2. Student Card

    Task 1

    Give a talk on your favourite school subject.

    Remember to say:

    • which of the school subjects you like most, why;

    • what you do during the lessons;

    • whether this subject is going to be useful for your, and why/why not.

    You have to talk 1,5–2 minutes. The examiner will listen until you have finished. Then

    she/he will ask you a question.

    Дополнительный вопрос:

    What else besides your favourite subject do you like in your school? Why?

    Пример тематического монологического высказывания

    Well, two years ago I changed school because my family had moved. It was not easy

    for me to get used to a new school and new teachers. But now I attend school with pleasure

    because it’s interesting to study there.

    My favourite subjects are Information Technology and Physical Education. IT and

    PE, for short. I really enjoy computers. They give the opportunity to

    find necessary information in a minute, communicate with friends and …play

    computer games. I’m already quite good at computers and I want to be an IT specialist.

    That is why IT lessons are useful for me. At the lessons, we are taught to write different

    programs use the Internet and make presentations. To my mind, I’ll need all

    these skills in the future.

    My second favourite lesson is PE because I am keen on sport. I’ve been in different

    sports but table tennis is the best for me. Unfortunately, we don’t play table tennis at PE

    lessons but we play football and pioneer ball, run, skip and jump. In winter and spring we

    go swimming in the nearest swimming pool. I think sport is very useful because it helps me to be healthy.

    So, there are many interesting subjects at school but IT and PE are the best.



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     C2. Student Card

    Task 1

           

    Give a 1,5 – 2 minute talk about your hobby.

    Remember to say:

    • why different people have different hobbies;
    • what hobby you have; who shares your interests;
    • what hobby would you like to take up, why?

    You have to talk 1,5–2 minutes. The examiner will listen until you have finished. Then

    she/he will ask you a question.

    Дополнительный вопрос:

    Do you share your friend’s hobby? Why?

    Пример тематического монологического высказывания

    Hobby can tell us a lot about person’s temper (характер). If you like chess then probably you are smart and balanced. If you enjoy mountain biking then you are brave and adventurous. If you simply sleep or watch TV in your spare time one can think that you have bad time management.

    As for me, I’m quite an active person and can’t sit in one place. That’s why I enjoy belly dancing. I started dancing when I was 6 and now it’s my passion! Belly dancing makes me plastic and develops my artistic taste. My mum shares my interests and helps me design new costumes and my classmates often visit the concerts of my club.

    If had more free time I would like to take up learning French ‘because it’s a beautiful language, it can broaden my mind and can help me while travelling.

            



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    C2. Student Card

    Task 1.

    Give a talk about problems of young people (1,5 – 2 min.)

    Remember to say:

    - what problems young people have nowadays

    - if you or your friends have any problems

    - what you or your friends can do to solve the problems

    You have to talk 1,5–2 minutes. The examiner will listen until you have finished. Then

    she/he will ask you a question.

    Пример тематического монологического высказывания

    Nowadays teenagers have a lot of problems. Their life is not easier than the life of grown-ups. I think the most important are the following: the problem of fathers and sons/generation gap, lack of money, unshared love, peer pressure (давление со стороны сверстников), bad marks at school, drugs and alcohol, computer addiction.

    As for me, I sometimes have arguments with my parents. We quarrel about what I have to wear or how much time I should pay to schoolwork and friends. Also, my parents are against computer games and different social networks. They don't let me play games or surf the Net for hours. One of my classmates plays even at night. The result is bad marks and red eyes. I think I should talk to him and explain that reality is more important and better than computer world.  If I cannot help, I'll ask a school psychologist for advice.

    Actually, every problem is very individual. To solve it, we should take into consideration a lot of factors (принять во внимание много факторов). But the best way to find a solution (найти решение) for me is to discuss the problem with parents or teachers. They have great experience and wish me better life.



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    С2. Student Card

    Task 1

    Give a talk about foreign languages

    Remember to say:

    - why foreign languages are important in modern society

    - what do you do to speak English fluently

    - why you have chosen English as your exam this year

    You have to talk for 1,5-2 minutes. The examiner will listen until you finish. Then he/she will ask you a question.

    Пример тематического монологического высказывания

    The role of foreign languages in modern society is increasing nowadays. More and more people realize the importance of knowing a foreign language as it makes your life richer in many ways. Thanks to the knowledge of foreign languages, you can read books and newspapers in the original, translate articles, communicate to native speakers, broaden your horizons and travel more easily. Moreover, knowing a foreign language can help you find a well-paid job in such fields as advertising, science and technology, foreign trade and banking or tourism and you can even get a chance to work abroad.

    Of course, speaking a foreign language is difficult. To succeed in it you must work very hard. As for me, to speak English fluently I try to learn new words every day, do lots of grammar exercises, listen to songs in English and watch films with subtitles. I also have a pen pal from Mexico. We exchange messages in English as often as possible. In addition, in summer my parents are planning to send me to an English camp. There I’ll have an opportunity to make new friends and practice my speaking skills.

    I’ve chosen English as my exam this year because it’s one of my favourite subjects and I need it to enter the university. I am totally convinced that knowing a foreign language is necessary for all educated people and modern specialists. It boosts your self-esteem and distinguishes you from the crowd.



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    С2. Student card

    Тask 1

    Speak about important inventions.

    Remember to say:

    - what invention you consider the most important

    - what devices you often use and what for

    - why it is difficult for people to do without computers and mobile phones

    You have to talk for 1.5–2 minutes. The examiner will listen until you have finished. Then he/she will ask you a question.

    Пример тематического монологического высказывания

              Over the years, scientists have invented a great number of things that changed the world and the way we live. They are telephones, computers, printing machines, smart TV sets, cameras and many others. But I consider the invention of the World Wide Web is the most important for all people on the planet. It was started as a military project in the USA in 1969. The Defense Department wanted to have a reliable way of transmitting information in case of war. Now the Internet is a part of our everyday life. It's a great source of information. Through the Internet, people can buy, sell, find a job, friends and even their love. They can study with the help of distant learning and communicate wherever they are.        

    As all modern people, I use such devices as a personal computer and a smartphone. The telephone is necessary for being in touch with friends and relatives. In addition, I use it for sending messages, listening to music and taking photos. I use my PC for finding information, playing on-line games with my friends and doing school projects.

    It’s difficult to imagine our lives without computers and mobile phones because they give us the freedom of movement and save a lot of time, money and effort.



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    Interlocutor card 1

    Task 2 (2-3 minutes)

    You play the part of a student in an international school. Your name is

    Bob/Roberta. A student of your school asks if he/ she could borrow your computer.

    Remember to:

    Agree to lend the computer. Find out what kind of presentation your friend

    is going to make.

    Ask why he/she wants to talk about that particular country, what attracts

    him/her to it.

     Mention that you would like to go that country too. You enjoy travelling but

    unfortunately you are afraid of flying. Find out what your school friend’s

    favourite means of transport is and why.

    Ask your school friend to do a favour too. Tomorrow you want to buy some

    souvenirs for your family and friends. Ask your schoolmate to go with you

    as you need his/her advice.

    Sample conversation

    Student: Hi, Bob/Roberta!

    Interlocutor: Hi!

    Student: Could I ask you for a favour?

    Interlocutor: Sure. What is it?

    Student: I need your computer for a couple of hours. Something’s wrong with mine

    and I need to make a presentation for tomorrow’s lesson.

    Interlocutor: Yes, no problem. Here it is. What kind of presentation are you

    making?

    Student: The presentation has to be about an English-speaking country I would like

    to visit. I want to speak about New Zealand.

    Interlocutor: I don’t know much about New Zealand I’m afraid. It’s so far

    away. And what attracts you to it?

    Student: Oh, it’s a small but wonderful country! It occupies two islands in the

    Pacific Ocean – The North and South Islands, and a few other small islands. New

    Zealand is a former British colony and English is a state language there. It’s far

    away and very isolated, and because of its geographic position, some unique

    animals and plants exist there. The bird kiwi, for example, is an emblem of New

    Zealand. It’s a very unusual bird that cannot fly, and it lives nowhere but New

    Zealand.

    Interlocutor: Now I feel like going there too. I like travelling but I’m afraid of

    flying. What transport do you prefer ?

    Student: I prefer travelling by car.

    Interlocutor: Do you? Why?

    Student: When you travel by car, you don’t have to pay attention to timetable. You

    can stop wherever you want. For example, if on your way you see a castle or some

    beautiful place near the road, you can stop and have a spontaneous excursion. Or if

    you feel hungry, you can stop and eat something in a café.

    Interlocutor: It’s a pity you can’t get to New Zealand by car.

    Student: It really is.

    Interlocutor: By the way, can I ask you for a favour too?

    Student: Yes, certainly.

    Interlocutor: I want to buy some souvenirs for my family and friends

    tomorrow. Could you go with me? I need your advice.

    Student: Yes, no problem. Let’s meet in our school cafeteria after classes. Say, at

    4pm?

    Interlocutor: Ok. Thank you. I’ll be waiting for you there.

    Student: Great. I’m sorry, Bob/Roberta, I have to be off now. Too much work to

    do on this presentation. Thank you for the computer.

    Interlocutor: My pleasure.

    Student: See you tomorrow.

    Interlocutor: See you. Have a nice day.

    Student: You too.

    Interlocutor card 2

    Task 2 (2-3 min.)

    Dialogue

    You play the part of an exchange student in an international school in Malta. You come to your

    classmate Andrea/ Andre to borrow her/his Grammar Book. You need it to write an essay on a

    British tourist attraction/place of interest.

    Remember to:

    Ask for the Grammar book and explain what you need it for.

    Answer your classmate’s questions about the tourist attraction you are going to write about.

    Do not accept any suggestions for the day as you want to start writing the essay as soon as

    possible.

    Invite your classmate to see a new film tomorrow.

    You begin the conversation. The teacher will play the part of your classmate.

    Sample conversation

    Student: Hello, Andrea!

    Interlocutor: Oh, hi!

    Student: I’m looking for a Grammar book. Do you have one?

    Interlocutor: Yes, sure and you can take my Grammar book.

    Student: Oh, thanks.

    Interlocutor: What do you need it for?

    Student: I’m going to write an essay on a British tourist attraction.

    Interlocutor: What exactly are you going to write about?

    Student: I think I’m going to write about the Madam Tussaud’s museum.

    Interlocutor: Hm. Have you ever been there?

    Student: No, unfortunately not. I’ve never been to London where the museum is situated.

    But I’ve seen a film about Madam Tussaud and her museum. The museum contains wax

    figures of famous people: singers, producers, actors, sportsmen, scientists, writers and

    politicians. Hundreds of people come to the museum every day to look at the celebrities

    and take photos of them. I hope I’ll visit London and the famous museum one day.

    Interlocutor: I see. By the way, I’m having lunch. Would you like to join me? Would

    you like some pizza?

    Student: Oh, thanks for your invitation but unfortunately, I have to start writing the essay

    now. But, perhaps, we could go to the cinema tomorrow?

    Interlocutor: Oh, sounds great. And where shall we meet?

    Student: We can meet at 4 o’clock at the cinema. Is it OK for you?

    Interlocutor: Yes, see you tomorrow, then.

    Student: Вye, thank you for the Grammar book.

    Interlocutor card 3

    Task 2 (2-3 minutes)

    You play the part of an exchange student in an international school. Your name is Chris/ Christine. You’ve been looking for some presents for your family and you’ve bought a chess set for your younger brother.

    Remember to:

    Answer the question about your purchases.

    Find out what sports and games are popular in your classmate’s country and what sport he/she goes in for.

    Find out what he/she does in their free time.

    Accept the invitation to go shopping together; the meeting place and the meeting time your classmate suggests.

    Sample conversation

    Student: Hello, Chris/Christine!

    Interlocutor: Hello!

    Student: What have you bought?

    Interlocutor: A chess set for my younger brother. He loves playing chess and he’s very good at it! What sports and games are popular in your country?

    Student: Lots of different sports. We play football and volleyball, tennis, badminton and lots of others.

    Interlocutor: And what sport do you go in for?

    Student: Cycling. There’s a stadium not far from my house and I sometimes go there to cycle. We also like cycling in the parks. It’s fun and it’s also very good for your health - it keeps me fit.

     Interlocutor: I see. And what do you do in your free time? Have you got any hobbies?

    Student: I like reading, watching TV and playing computer games. I often go to the cinema or to our school parties with my friends. We also play sports indoors as there’s a large gym in our school. Unfortunately, I don’t play chess, but I want to learn it one day.

    Interlocutor: It’s a good game, you should learn it.

    Student: Look, how about going shopping with me this Saturday? I need to buy some souvenirs for my friends.

    Interlocutor: Oh, that would be nice. Where are we going to meet?

    Student: Let’s meet in the school canteen at 3 pm.

    Interlocutor: Ok. See you later.

    Student: See you. Bye!