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    Дистанционное обучение 15.04.2020

    Сидельникова Татьяна Владимировна

    Задания для студентов АПК

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    Слайд 1

    INVENTIONS AND INVENTORS

    Слайд 2

    "To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old questions from a new angle, requires creative imagination and marks real advance". "Imagination is more important than knowledge" . Albert Einstein

    Слайд 3

    To invent is to see anew. An invention is a new composition, device, or process. Some inventions are based on pre-existing models or ideas and others are radical breakthroughs. Inventions can extend the boundaries of human knowledge or experience.

    Слайд 4

    Match the words and definitions: 1. a TV set 2 . a car 3 . a computer 4 . a video player 5 . a camera 6 . a vacuum cleaner 7 . a fridge 8. a mobile telephone 9. a plane 10. a telephone a. to take photographs b. to receive or make calls around the home c. to perform everyday cleaning tasks d. to move fast and quick around the world e. to watch pre-recorded videos f. to keep food fresh for a long time g. to have fun and to entertain h. a system for sending or receiving speech over long distance i. to write programs, play games, find and use information j. to move wherever you want by yourself

    Слайд 5

    Which things are the most or least useful in the house from your point of view? 1. I think that ….. is the most important thing . 2. We can ….. 3. Some of the inventions, for example …. is less important. 4. We do not often ….. 5. And I’m sure we can do without …..

    Слайд 6

    INVENTIONS: 1. Nicephore Niepce from France pioneered photography in 1829. 2. In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell, an American engineer, invented telephone. 3. Karl Benz produced the world’s first petrol-driven car in Germany in 1878. 4. In 1895 the Lumiere brothers patented their cinematography and opened the world’s first cinema in Paris. 5. The first Russia’s automobile was designed by P.A.Frez and E.A.Yakovlev. By May 1896 the car had been built. 6. Wilbur and Orville Wright built the first airplane in 1903. 7. The first ballpoint pen was produced in 1940 though it had been invented by L. Biro, a Hungarian artist and journalist, in 1905. 8. In 1908 James M. Spangler from the USA built the first vacuum cleaner. 9. In 1908 US automobile manufacturer Henry Ford created the world’s first car assembly line . 10. John Logie Baird from Scotland invented television in 1926. 11. In 1928 Richard Drew perfected the Scotch tape, which had been invented by Jim Kirst from the USA in 1923. 12. In 1945 the Nobel Prize was given to Alexander Fleming for penicillin that had been discovered in 1928. 13. Sergey Korolyev designed the first artificial satellite in 1957. 14. Akio Morita developed the first personal stereo – Sony Walkman in 1957. 15. In 1981 Bill Gates created Microsoft-DOS (Disk Operating System). 16. Scottish scientist Ian Wilmat developed the idea of cloning in 1997.

    Слайд 7

    Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (1765 – 1833) Joseph Nicéphore Niépce was a French inventor, most noted as one of the inventors of photography and a pioneer in the field. He is well-known for taking some of the earliest photographs, dating to the 1820s. As revolutionary as his invention was, Niépce is little known even today.

    Слайд 8

    Alexander Graham Bell (1847 – 1922) Alexander Graham Bell was an eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone. His research on hearing and speech led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S. patent for the telephone in 1876.

    Слайд 9

    Karl Friedrich Benz (1844 – 1929) Karl Friedrich Benz was a German engine designer and automobile engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the petrol-powered automobile and pioneering founder of the automobile manufacturer, Mercedes-Benz.

    Слайд 10

    The Lumière brothers: Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas (1862 – 1954) Louis Jean (1864– 1948) The Lumière brothers were among the earliest filmmakers. Louis had made some improvements to the still-photograph process, the most notable being the dry-plate process, which was a major step towards moving images. The cinematograph itself was patented on 13 February 1895 and the first footage ever to be recorded using it was recorded on 19 March 1895.

    Слайд 11

    The Wright brothers: Orville (1871 – 1948) Wilbur (1867 – 1912) The Wright brothers were two Americans who are generally credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903. In two years afterward, the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. The Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing flight possible.

    Слайд 12

    László József Bíró (1899 – 1985) László József Bíró was the inventor of the modern ballpoint pen. He presented the first production of the ball pen at the Budapest International Fair in 1931. Working with his brother George, a chemist, he developed a new tip consisting of a ball that was free to turn in a socket, and as it turned it would pick up ink from a cartridge and then roll to deposit it on the paper. Bíró patented the invention in Paris in 1938.

    Слайд 13

    James Murray Spangler (1848 - 1915) In 1907, James Murray Spangler, a janitor in Canton, Ohio invented an electric vacuum cleaner from a fan, a box, and a pillowcase.

    Слайд 14

    John Logie Baird (1888 – 1946) John Logie Baird was a British engineer and inventor of the world's first working television system, also the world's first fully electronic colour television broadcast. Although Baird's electromechanical system was eventually displaced by purely electronic systems his early successes demonstrating working television broadcasts and his colour and cinema television work earn him a prominent place in television's invention.

    Слайд 15

    John Gorrie (1803 – 1855) John Gorrie was a physician, scientist, inventor, and humanitarian, is considered the father of refrigeration and air conditioning.

    Слайд 16

    Henry Ford was the American founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry. He was a prolific inventor and was awarded 161 U.S. patents. Henry Ford (1863 – 1947)

    Слайд 17

    Richard G.Drew (1886-1982) In 1923 Richard Drew settled down on work in company Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing which concerned with the production of the sandpaper, exploratory activity in the field of watertight surfaces and experimented with cellophane. And 27 May 1930 Richard Drew patented his invention - transparent getting sticky tape.

    Слайд 18

    Alexander Fleming (1881 – 1955) Sir Alexander Fleming was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. His best-known achievements are the discovery of the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.

    Слайд 19

    Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov (1907 – 1966) Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov was the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s. He is considered by many as the father of practical astronautics.

    Слайд 20

    Akio Morita (1921 — 1999) Akio Morita was a Japanese entrepreneur, cofounder of Sony Corp. In 1949, the company developed magnetic recording tape and in 1950, sold the first tape recorder in Japan. In 1957, it produced a pocket-sized radio.

    Слайд 21

    William Henry "Bill" Gates III (born October 28, 1955) William Henry "Bill" Gates III is an American business magnate, philanthropist, and chairman of Microsoft, the software company. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of CEO and chief software architect, and remains the largest individual shareholder. Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution.

    Слайд 22

    Sir Ian Wilmut (born 7 July 1944) Sir Ian Wilmut is an English embryologist and is currently Director of the MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine at the University of Edinburgh. He is best known as the leader of the research group that in 1996 first cloned a mammal from an adult somatic cell, a Finnish Dorset lamb named Dolly.

    Слайд 23

    GRAMMAR IN FOCUS PAST PERFECT PASSIVE HAD + BEEN + V3

    Слайд 24

    By the end of the 19 th century invented tested improved made discovered pioneered .....? had been built developed produced found created introduced designed perfected patented

    Слайд 25

    What inventions had been made by the end of the 19 -20 th century? 1. ………..….. ……………by the end of the 19 th century. 2. ……….….. ……………..by the end of the 19 th century. 3. ……….….. ……………..by the end of the 19 th century. 4. The first …….. ………...by the end of the 19 th century. 5. The first …... ..………..by the end of the 19 th century. 6. The ………..….. ……….by the end of the 19 th century. invented made built found designed tested created discovered perfected pioneered produced patented



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                                                                ТЕМА: «Первые в космосе»

    1. Answer the questions:

         -Who was the first cosmonaut?

         -Who was the first person to invent the idea of space rockets?

         -Who constructed the first spaceship?

         -Who was the first man to take a walk in space?

         -Who was the first man on the Moon?

         -Who was the first woman in space?

    1. Find the same words in Russian:

    Space                                             исследовать, изучать

    Exploration                                    космос

    To explore                                     исследование

    Research                                        запускать

    A researcher                                   космический корабль

                      Launch                                            спутник

    Spaceship                                        астронавт

    Satellite                                           исследовать

    Astronaut                                        запускать

    1. Translate some word-combinations:

                 a) первый полет

                 б) пролетая над землей

                 в) вид горизонта

                 г) вышел в космос

                 д) сила притяжения

    6.   Match the two parts of the statements.

                        1. The spaceship flew at the speed of                                    

                       2. I saw for the first time with my own eyes

                         3. When weightlessness developed

                         4. I felt excellent as

       a)  I entered  space.

        b) 300 miles a minute.

        c) the Earth’s spherical shape.

        d) everything was easier to do.

                    7.  Read the text.

                                                                                         Yuri Gagarin.

                       It was on the 12th of April, 1961, when the first flight by man into cosmic space took place. Yuri Gagarin, the first cosmonaut in the world, was a 27-year old Air Force pilot at that time.

                      The spaceship flew at the speed of 300 miles a minute. That’s six times faster than man ever travelled before. His flight lasted 108 minutes, but a circuit round the Earth took 89 minutes.

                      It was a brilliant achievement on the part of our scientists and technologists, and on the part of Yuri Gagarin who risked his life to achieve a victory for his country and mankind.

                     This is what Yuri Gagarin said at his press conference:  «On my flight the ‘day’ side of the Earth was clearly seen: the continents, islands, seas, and big rivers. Flying over the land I could clearly see the big squares of fields, and it was possible to distinguish which meadow and which was forest. I could not see as well as from an airplane, but very, very well though.

                       I saw for the first with my own eyes the Earth’s spherical shape. I must say that the view of the horizon is very beautiful. You can see the noticeable change from the light surface of the Earth to the completely black sky in which you can see the stars. This transition, from light blue to dark, is very gradual and lovely.

                       I did not see the Moon. In space the sun shines ten times more brightly than on the Earth. The stars can be seen very well.

                       I felt excellent as I entered space. When weightlessness developed, everything was easier to do. My legs and arms weighed nothing. Objects swam in the cabin.

                      The passage back from weightlessness to the force of gravity happened smoothly. Arms and legs feel the same as during weightlessness, but now they have weight.

    8.   Choose the right answer

    1)True                          2)False                       3) Not stated

    A. The first cosmonaut in the world was Nil Armstrong.

    B. They want to travel, to see the world from outside the Earth.

    C. I have never been on the Moon.

    D. In space the Sun doesn’t shine more brightly than on the Earth.



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    ТЕМА: КЛАСС МЕЧТЫ.

    Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.

    Beyond Our Dreams!

    From my point of view our college is modem and well-designed. It is a three-storied building with a sports ground behind it. I really think it is the best educational institution in Moscow. We even have an inside swimming pool!

    On the ground floor there are the classrooms for the first-year students, workshop and a library. There are all kinds of tools and machines in the workshops. In the library two librarians help students to find the books they need. In the reading room there are laptops which we can use dining the breaks and after classes.

    Our canteen is spacious, light and clean. We have our meals there.

    The physical training lessons take place in the gymnasium and the swimming pool. We like to go there even after the lessons. To the left of the gym there is a hall and a staircase. The staircase leads to the first floor.

    The classrooms are well-equipped. Each room has a teacher's table, students' desks, a board, a computer and a multimedia projection unit. There are special classrooms for Chemistry, Physics, Biology, History, Geography, English and Russian.

    My English classroom is on the second floor. It has three big windows. There are lots of potted plants on the window sills, and we take good care of them. The board in our classroom is magnetic. We write with markers on it and attach our projects to it with magnets. Next to the board there are maps of Russia and Great Britain, various grammar tables and charts.

    There is a computer in the right-hand corner. We often listen to original English texts, songs and watch films on a big screen which make our lessons interesting. I like my college. It provides us with everything to help us become good specialists.

    Письменно выполните задания:

    1. True or false.

    1. Alexander studies in Moscow.

    2. There is an indoor swimming pool in his college.

    3. The library is equipped with laptops.

    4. All the classrooms are on the first floor.

    5. The classrooms are the same.

    2. Match the beginning of the sentence with its ends.

    1. On the ground floor there are the classrooms for

    2. Each room has a teacher's table, students' desks, a board,

    a computer and

    3 Next to the board there are maps of Russia and Great Britain,

    4. From my point of view our college

    5. The physical training lessons take place in the

    1. a multimedia projection unit.

    2 is modem and well-designed.

    3. gymnasium and the swimming pool.

    4. the first-year students, workshops

    and a library.

    5. various grammar tables and charts.

    1. True or false.

    1. After classes the students rush home.

    2. The students like their English classes.

    3. At the English lessons they watch films, listen to texts and present their projects.

    4. They don't use chalk in their English classroom.

    5. Alexander is proud of his college.

    2. Match the beginning of the sentence with its ends.

    1. Our canteen is spacious,

    2. There are lots of potted plants on the

    3 There are all kinds of tools

    4. We often listen to original English texts, songs and

    5. In the library two librarians help

    1. and machines in the workshops.

    2 watch films on a big screen which make our lessons interesting.

    3. window sills, and we take good care of them.

    4. students to find the books they need.

    5. light and clean.

    ТЕМА: Инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты.

    Инфинитив в английском языке – это неличная форма глагола. Как и глагол, инфинитив называет действие, но в отличие от глагола, не указывает на лицо и число. В своей основной форме (Simple Infinitive) инфинитив отвечает на вопросы: что делать? что сделать?

    to read – читать,

    to purchase – приобретать.

    Инфинитив по-другому называют “неопределенная форма глагола” или “начальная форма глагола”.

    Таблица: формы инфинитива в английском языке

    Инфинитив может иметь 4 формы в активном залоге и 2 в пассивном.

    Активный залог

    Пассивный залог

    Simple (Indefinite)

    to ask

    to be asked

    Continuous

    to be asking

    Perfect

    to have asked

    to have been asked

    Perfect Continuous

    to have been asking

    Однако наиболее употребительна и актуальна для изучения – форма “простой инфинитив в действительном залоге” (to ask). По сути, когда говорят “инфинитив”, обычно, в большинстве случаев имею в виду именно эту форму.

    Инфинитивный оборот  в английском языке – это оборот, в котором инфинитив выступает в роли сказуемого. Обратите внимание, кроме него в инфинитивный оборот может входить подлежащее, дополнение и обстоятельство.

    Существует три типа инфинитивного оборота:

    Сложное дополнение

    1. Объектный — сложное дополнение. Он состоит из существительного или личного местоимения в объектном падеже (me, him, her, us, you, them) и инфинитива, и употребляется лишь после глаголов, выражающих желание, восприятие, предположение, приказание, просьбу:

    Например:

    I saw him crossing the street.

    Я видел, как он переходил улицу.

    Сложное подлежащее

    2. Субъектный инфинитивный оборот или сложное подлежащее. Он состоит из существительного или личного местоимения в именительном падеже и инфинитива, обозначающего действие:

    Например:

    They are reported to arrive in two days.

    Сообщают, что они прибудут через два дня.

    Оборот с предлогом for

    3. Инфинитивный оборот с предлогом  for. Таким образом, этот оборот состоит из предлога for, существительного или личного местоимения в объектном падеже и инфинитива. В этой конструкции глагол в форме инфинитива обозначает действие, которое выполняется существительным (местоимением), стоящим после for:

    Например:

    We waited for the rain to stop.

    Мы ждали, пока прекратится дождь.

    Задание: замените выделенные части предложений инфинитивными оборотами.

    ПРИМЕР:  The boy had many toys which he could play with. -  The boy had many toys to play with.

    1. Here is something which will warm you up. 2. Here is a new brush which you will clean your teeth with. 3. Here are some more facts which will prove that your theory is correct. 4. Here is something which you can rub on your hands. It will soften them. 5. Here are some screws with which you can fasten the shelves to the wall. 6. Here are some tablets which will relieve your headache. 7. Here are some articles which must be translated for tomorrow. 8. Who has a pen or a pencil to spare? I need something I could write with. 9. I have brought you a book which you can read now, but be sure and return it by Saturday. 10. Soon we found that there was another complicated problem that we were to consider. 11. The girl was quite young when both her parents died and she remained alone with two younger brothers whom she had to take care of. 12. I have no books which I can read. 13. Is there anybody who will help you with your spelling? 14. Don't forget that she has a baby which she must take care of. 15. Have you got nothing that you want to say on this subject? 16. There was nothing that he could do except go home. 17. I have only a few minutes in which I can explain these words to you. 18. I have an examination which I must take soon, so I can't go to the theatre with you. 19. King Lear decided to have a hundred knights who would serve him after he had divided up his kingdom



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    Тема: Магазины, товары. Типы магазинов в странах изучаемого языка.

    Жизнь современного человека немыслима без покупок. Каждый день мы ходим в различные магазины и покупаем всевозможные товары: от безделушек в виде заколок или ручек до крупных приобретений, таких как холодильник или даже автомобиль. Сегодня вы узнаете о названиях магазинов на английском языке, чем отличается supermarket от department store, а также какие фразы помогут вам совершить покупку за границей.

    Виды магазинов на английском языке. Kinds of shops

    Для начала запомните, что английское слово magazine – это «журнал» по-русски. Это типичная ошибка русскоговорящих студентов. В Великобритании магазин – это shop, а в США – store. Названия большинства магазинов на английском языке образуются путём добавления слова shop к названию основного продукта, который там продаётся, например:

    Слово

    Перевод

    Bookshop

    Книжный магазин

    Clothing shop

    Магазин одежды

    Gift shop

    Магазин подарков

    Shoe shop

    Обувной магазин

    Record shop

    Музыкальный магазин

    Pet shop

    Зоомагазин

    Jewellery shop

    Ювелирный магазин

    Есть ряд магазинов, чьи названия образуются с помощью добавления ‘s к названиям профессий людей, которые там работают: butcher – мясник, butcher’s – мясная лавка.

    Слово

    Перевод

    Butcher’s

    Мясная лавка

    Baker’s

    Булочная

    Chemist’s

    Аптека

    Newsagent’s

    Газетный киоск

    Optician’s

    Магазин оптики

    Greengrocer’s

    Овощной магазин

    Fishmonger’s

    Рыбный магазин

    Также вам может понадобиться посетить и такие магазины:

    Слово

    Перевод

    Cash-and-carry

    Большой оптовый магазин

    Dairy shop

    Магазин молочных продуктов

    Delicatessen (deli)

    Гастроном (магазин, в котором продаются продукты из мяса, сыра и блюда итальянской, азиатской кухни и т. д.)

    Tearoom, tea shop

    Кафе-кондитерская, чайная

    Outfitter

    Магазин спецодежды и принадлежностей для кемпинга и охоты

    Крупные магазины

    Практически во всех городах есть торговые центры, где собраны магазины различной направленности – супермаркеты, универмаги и т. д. Рассмотрим, в чём же разница между ними.

    1. Универмаг или универсальный магазин (department store) – магазин, в котором продаётся множество товаров в разных отделах. Чаще всего универмаги располагаются в отдельно стоящих зданиях или торговых центрах.
    2. Торговый центр (shopping centre, mall) – группа магазинов, находящихся в одном здании или комплексе зданий. Часто торговые центры снабжены лифтами, эскалаторами, парковкой.
    3. Супермаркет (supermarket) – большой магазин, в котором продаются в основном продукты питания и товары для дома.
    4. Рынок (street market) – совокупность торговых точек под открытым небом.

    Вывески в магазинах. Signs in shops

    В любом магазине вам может встретиться одна из таких вывесок или табличек:

    Слово

    Перевод

    Open

    Открыто

    Closed

    Закрыто

    Push

    От себя

    Pull

    На себя

    Cash desk

    Касса

    No admission / No entry

    Вход запрещён

    Hours: ... to ...

    Часы работы

    Lavatory/WC

    Туалет

    Оплата покупки. Payment

    Оплатить покупку вы можете наличными (pay in cash) или кредитной карточкой (by/with credit card). Раньше можно было расплатиться чеком (by cheque), но сейчас этот способ оплаты практически не используется. Почти во всех магазинах вы можете расплатиться кредитной карточкой либо наличными, а на рынке вам, скорее всего, придётся платить только наличными.
    Часто магазины устраивают распродажи
    (sale), на которых вы можете купить товары по сниженной цене или со скидкой (discount).

    Полезные фразы для общения в магазине

    При покупке какого-либо товара вам могут пригодиться следующие фразы:

    1. How much does it cost? – Сколько это стоит?
    2. Can I try this shirt on? – Могу ли я примерить эту рубашку?
    3. Have you got a bigger/smaller size? – У вас есть размер побольше/поменьше?
    4. Could you tell me where the changing room is? – Могли бы вы сказать, где находится примерочная?
    5. It’s not what I’m looking for. – Это не то, что я ищу.
    6. Does it come with a guarantee? – Есть ли на это гарантия?
    7. Can I pay in cash / with a credit card? – Могу ли я расплатиться наличными / кредитной карточкой?
    8. Do you deliver? – Вы осуществляете доставку?
    9. Could I have a discount? – Могу ли я получить скидку?
    10. I’d like to return it. – Я бы хотел вернуть это.

    Kinds of Shops and the Goods Sold

    Запомните:

    •goods — товары

    •sell — продавать

    •buy — покупать

    •offer  — предлагать

    ЗАДАНИЕ. В каких магазинах продают следующие товары:

    buns, lollipops, pies, prawns, beef, files, daffodils,  tangerines, chicken, pears, pumpkin, cards, bread, cottage cheese, seafood, tulips, paints, brushes, sausage

    ТОВАРЫ

    1. Sweet Shop

    1.chocolate(s) —  шоколад

    2.caramels — карамельки

    3.toffees — ириски

    4.marshmallows — пастила

    5.lollipops — леденцы

    6.mints — мятные конфетки

    2. Confectioner’s

    1.biscuits (cookies) — печенье

    2.sweet pies — сладкие пирожки

    3.shortbread(s) — песочное печенье

    4.cheesecake — чизкейк

    5.cream rolls — булочки

    6.doughnuts — пончики

    3. Butcher’s

    1.beef — говядина

    2.pork — свинина

    3.mutton — баранина

    4.chicken — курицу

    5.minced beef (pork) — фарш

    6.sausage — колбаса

    7.sausages — сосиски

    8.ham — ветчина

    4. Baker’s

    1.wheat bread — пшеничный хлеб

    2.rye bread — ржаной хлеб

    3.white bread — белый хлеб

    4.brown bread — черный хлеб

    5.French loaf — французский батон

    6.crispbread — хлебцы

    7.pastries — мучные изделия

    8.bun — булочка (сдобные)

    9.roll — рулет, булочка

    5. Grocer’s

    1.oil — масло

    2.flour — мука

    3.vinegar — уксус

    4.spaghetti — спагетти

    5.sugar — сахар

    6.cereals — крупа

    7.cereal — хлопья (сухой завтрак)

    6. Fishmonger’s

    1.seafood — морепродукты

    2.caviar(e) — икра

    3.salmon — лосось, семга

    4.crab sticks — крабовые палочки

    5.tinned fish — консервированная рыба

    6.fish fingers — рыбные палочки

    7.prawns (shrimps) — креветки

    7. Dairy Shop

    1.cheese — сыр

    2.butter — масло

    3.cream — сливки

    4.sour cream — сметана

    5.cottage cheese — творог

    6.yoghurt — йогурт

    7.eggs — яйца

    8. Florist’s

    1.daffodils — желтый нарцисс

    2.chrysanthemums — хризантемы

    3.carnations — алая гвоздика

    4.tulips — тюльпаны

    5.lilies — лилии

    6.roses — розы

    ЗАДАНИЕ: Опишите, как вы делаете покупки.

     

    I like/hate doing shopping.

    I shop (exclusively) online/offline because it's ... (cheap, easy, convenient, better choice, fun etc).

    I do my weekly shopping on ... (Sunday).

    My favourite stores are ...

    I do my food shopping at...

    I usually buy ... there.

    I have / don't have a passion for buying clothes.

    I spend a lot of money on .. .

    I (often) buy ...