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    Методическoе пособие для самостоятельной работы студентов II курса по дисциплине «Английский язык» (тема «System of Education. Secondary Education»)
    методическая разработка по английскому языку (11 класс) на тему

    Красникова Наталья Борисовна

    Методическое пособие содержат тексты по теме, списки лексических единиц,  упражнения для развития речевых и грамматических умений.

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    Государственное бюджетное профессиональное образовательное учреждение

                         «Арзамасский коммерческо-технический техникум»

                                                               

                                                                      Н.Б. Красникова

    Методическoе пособие

    для самостоятельной работы студентов

    II курса

    по дисциплине «Английский язык»

    (тема «System of Education. Secondary Education»)

           

                                                      Арзамас

                                                          2016

    Одобрено методическим объединением социально-гуманитарных дисциплин

                                Протокол №     от                  2016.

    Рецензент:

    Г.А.Перелыгина, преподаватель английского языка

    1 квалификационной категории.

    Красникова Н.Б.

    Методическое пособие для самостоятельной работы студентов 2 курса по дисциплине «Английский язык» (тема «Система образования. Среднее образование»).- Арзамас: ГБПОУ АКТТ, 2016, - 54 с.

    Методическое пособие содержат тексты по теме, списки лексических единиц,  упражнения для развития речевых и грамматических умений.

    Пособие призвано  помочь  освоить лексико-грамматический  материал, научиться строить монологические высказывания и вести диалог по теме «Система образования. Среднее образование».

                                                                                   

                                                                                                              © Арзамасский  коммерческо-

                                                                                технический техникум, 2016


    СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

    Введение

    Part I.

    1. Text 1. State education in Britain..
    2. Text 2. Schools in Britain.
    3. Text 3. Education in Britain.
    4. Text 4. Education in Britain. State policy.
    5. Text 5. Education in the USA.
    6. Text 6. Private education.
    7. Text 7. The school day.
    8. Text 8. Dramatic change – the national curriculum.
    9. Text 9. The hidden curriculum – school discipline.
    10.  Text 10. A day at English school.
    11.  Text 11. Classroom behaviour rules in North America.
    12.   Text 12. Education and training choices.
    13.  Text 13. Filling the gap…
    14.  Project work.

    1. Part II. Grammar appendix

    Литература

    Введение

            

            Данное пособие содержит тексты, списки лексических единиц по теме «Система образования. Среднее образование». К текстам прилагаются задания для проверки понимания прочитанного, лексические и грамматические упражнения.

            Цель данного пособия: развитие иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции (речевой, языковой, социокультурной, компенсаторной, учебно-познавательной), развитие и воспитание способности и готовности к самостоятельному и непрерывному изучению английского языка, дальнейшему самообразованию с его помощью.

            После изучения предложенной темы Вы будете

    Знать/понимать:

    - значения новых лексических единиц на темы «Образование в Великобритании», «Школы в Великобритании», «Образование в США», «Частное образование», «Правила поведения в школе», «Учебный день».

    - речевые выражения по теме,

    -особенности образования и употребления Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Perfect, Future Perfect Continuous.

    Уметь:

    - вести диалог в ситуациях общения по теме: «Среднее образование»,  рассказывать, рассуждать в связи с тематикой прочитанных текстов, выражая своё отношение к излагаемым фактам и давая им свою оценку, подготовить проект по теме,

    - грамотно использовать формы глагола в речи.

    PART 1

    SECONDARY EDUCATION

    TEXT 1

    1. Answer these questions for your own country:
    1. Do boys and girls go to the same schools?
    2. Do they have to go school by law?
    3. At what age do children start school?
    4. At what age can children leave school?
    5. What type of education is there after school?

    1. Read the text and pay attention to the topical words.

                            STATE EDUCATION IN BRITAN

       All state schools in Britain are free, and schools provide their pupils with books and equipment for their studies. Nine million children attend 35, 000 schools in Britain. Education is compulsory from 5-16 years. Parents can choose to send their children to a nursery school or a pre-school play group to prepare them for the start of compulsory education.

       Children start primary school at 5 and continue until they are 11. Most children are taught together; boys and girls in the same class.

       At 11 most pupils go to secondary schools called comprehensives which accept a wide range of children from all backgrounds and religious and ethnic groups. Ninety per cent of secondary schools in England, Scotland and Wales are co- educational.

       At 16 pupils take a national exam called `GCSE` (General Certificate of Secondary Education) and them they can leave school if they wish. This is the end of compulsory education.

       Some 16-years-olds continue their studies in the sixth form at school or at a sixth form college. The sixth from prepares pupils for a national exam called `A` level (Advanced Level) at 18. You need `A` levels to enter a university. Other 16-years-olds choose to go to a college of further education to study for more practical (vocational) diplomas relating to the world of work, such as hairdressing, typing or mechanics.

       Universities and colleges of higher education accept students with `A` levels from 18. Students study for a degree, which takes an average three years of full- time study. Most students graduate at 21 or 22 are given their degree at a special graduation ceremony.

    3. Math each of these worlds from the text with the correct definition:

    compulsory

    to finish university

    co- educational

    must do

    degree

    qualification from a university

    graduate

    boys and girls study together

    4. Find English equivalents to the following words:

    бесплатное, обязательное, совместное, посещать, дошкольное образование, среднее образование, высшее образование, окончить школу, окончить институт, получить диплом, дневное обучение, степень, единая школа, принимать, продолжать, выбирать, диплом о средне- профессиональном образовании.

    5. Finish these sentences:

    a. The school- leaving age Britain is…

    b. Pupils go to… school before secondary school.

    c. There are… schools for the under- 5s

    d. The national exam at 16 is…

    e. The national exam at 18 is…

    f. Universities are part of…

    6. Complete the diagram by writing the name of each type of school in the boxes. Write the age pupils at each type of school.

    Pre-school education

    3-4 years old

    Compulsory education

    5-…years old

    …-…years old        Work

               

                    

    …-…years old        Work

    18-21 years old         Work

    7. Underline any differences between your system of education and the British system.

    8. Write sentences to explain the differences.

    9. Draw a diagram to illustrate your education system.

    10. Answer the questions:

    a. Are all state schools in Britain free?

    b. Do schools provide their pupils books and equipment?

    c. Is education compulsory?

    d. When education is compulsory?

    e. When do children start school?

    f. What does the world ‘co- educational’ mean?

    g. How is national exam at 16 called?

    h. How is national exam at 18 called?

    i. What degree do pupils need to enter university?

    Text 2

    SCHOOLS IN BRITAIN

       All children and young people between the ages of 4 or 5 and 16 must receive fulltime education in Britain.

       At the age of five all children go to infant school and stay there until they are seven. Then they go to junior school where they study arithmetic, reading and composition, which are all tested subject. History, Geography, Nature Study, Art and Music, Physical education are also included into the timetable.

    At 7 and 11years old teachers measure children’s progress in each subject. Pupils are streamed according to their ability to learn into A, B, C and D streams.

       Infant and junior schools are the stages of primary education. To receive secondary education most children go to comprehensive school. The large majority of schools teach both boys and girls together. The Curriculum consists of English, mathematics, science, history, geography, technology, music, art, physical education and, for older pupils, a modern language. The young people stay at school till they are 16. Their years at secondary school may lead to General Certificate of secondary education (GCSE)* examinations. They are taken by students all levels of ability in any of a range of subjects.

       16 is a crucial age when young men and women have to decide whether to stay at school, to go on to a college, to look for a job, or to start a Young Training programme.** Those not staying at school or going on to college after the age of 16 normally leave when they have completed their GCSE examinations. Those who choose to stay on at school after GCSE usually study for further years for «A» (advanced) level exams in two or three subjects.

       Some comprehensive schools, however, do not have enough academic courses for them. Students can move either to a grammar school*** or to a sixth-year college**** to get the courses they want.

       The «A» level exam is taken at the age of 18, and is the main standard for entry to university education and to many forms of professional training.

    *GCSE (General Certificate of secondary education) – аттестат о среднем образовании

    ** Young Training programme – программа профессионального обучения молодёжи

    *** Grammar school – a type of school preparing for university

    ****Sixth-year college – подготовительный колледж

    1.Find English equivalents in the text:
    Все дети и молодые люди; получить полное образование; в пятилетнем возрасте; до семи лет; предметы, подлежащие тестированию; природоведение; физвоспитание; проверить и оценить успехи детей; детей делят на потоки в соответствии с их способностями к учебе; степени начального образования; чтобы получить среднее образование; подавляющее большинство школ; учебный план; современный язык; экзамены на аттестат о среднем образовании; решающий возраст; решать, остаться ли в школе; пойти в колледж; искать работу; начать заниматься по программе профессионального обучения молодежи; по двум или трем предметам; курс по желанию; главное условие для поступления; университетское образование; профессиональное образование.


    2. Answer the following questions:
    a. Is education compulsory in Great Britain?
    b. Between what ages must British children and young people receive full-time education?

    c. What stages does the primary education consist of?

    d. What school do British children go to at the age of five?

    e. How long do they stay there?

    f. How long do they study at the junior school?
    g. How are pupils streamed into A, B, C and D streams?

    h. At what school do children study to receive secondary education?

    i. What subjects does the Curriculum of the comprehensive school consist of?

    j. How do their years of study end?

    k. What age is considered to be a crucial age and why?

    l. What do the young people who choose to stay on at school do?

    1. Answer the following questions about education in Russia:
    1. Between what age must Russian children and young people receive full-time education?
    2. At what school do the children of Russia study to receive secondary education?
    3. What subjects does the Curriculum of secondary school consist of?
    4. What certificate do young people get after finishing school?
    5. What exams do they take to get the certificate?
    6. At what age must Russian young men and women decide whether to stay at school or to start a training programme?
    7. What do young people usually do after leaving school?


      4. Translate the following into English:

    a. Все дети в Великобритании с пяти лет начинают учиться в школе. Сначала они посещают начальную школу, а по достижении семи лет они переходят в младшую.

    b. Когда детям исполняется 7, а затем 11 лет, учителя проверяют их знания по каждому предмету.

    c. Почти во всех школах проводится совместное обучение мальчиков и девочек.
    d. В учебный план включены такие дисциплины, как английский язык, математика, естественные науки, история, география и другие.
    e. По окончании средней школы может быть получен аттестат о среднем образовании.

    f. 16 лет – это решающий возраст, когда молодежь стоит перед выбором, оставаться ли в школе, идти учиться в колледж, искать ли работу или включиться в программу профессионального обучения молодежи.

    g. Те, кто выбирает дальнейшее обучение в школе, продолжают учиться для подготовки в университет.

    Vocabulary

    to receive                    получать

    full-time                      по полной программе

    education                    образование

    Infant school               начальная школа

    Junior                          младшая школа

    tested                          проверяемый

    to include                   включать (в себя)

    timetable                    расписание

    to measure                  мерить

    streams                       потоки

    according                    в соответствии

    stage                            ступень

    Primary education       начальное образование

    Secondary education   среднее образование

    Comprehensive           единая школа

    majority                      большинство

    Curriculum                  учебный план

    to consist of                состоять(из)

    to lead                        вести, приводить

    level                           уровень  

    range                          ряд

    crucial                         решающий

    to leave                       оставлять

    to compete                  завершать

    further                         дальнейший  

    enough                        достаточно

    entry                           поступление

    training                      обучение

     

                                                 Text 3

                              EDUCATION IN BRITAIN

       Education in Britain is comrulsory between the ages of 5 and 16 (4 and 16 in Northern Ireland).

    Primary education includes three age ranges: nursery for children under 5 years, infants from 5 to 7, and juniors from 7 to 11 years old. About half little children attend pre-school play-grounds mostly organised by parents.

       Compulsory primary education begins at the age of 5 in England, Wales and Scotland, and 4 in Northern Ireland. Children usually start their school career in an infant school and move to a junior school or department at the age of 7. Pupils in England and Wales begin to tackle a range of subjects including those stipulated under the National Curriculum, which will form the basis of their education until the age of 16. Subjects covered include English, mathematics and science, along with technology, history, geography, music, art and physical education and, for older pupils, a modern language. Religious education is available in all school, although parents have the right to withdraw their children from such classes. Secondary schools are generally much larger than primary schools. A small proportion attend fee-paying private, or «independent» («public») schools. The large majority of schools teach both boys and girls together. The school year in England and Wales normally begins in September and continues into the following July. In Scotland it runs From August to June and Northern Ireland from September to June and has three terms. Pupils of all ages take part in work-place activities that, teachers believe, “help them to develop personal as well as commercial skills”.

       At 7 and 11 years old, and then at 14 and 16 at secondary school, teachers measure children’s progress in each subject. Parents receive regular information about the way their child’s school is performing, as well as their child is progressing.

         The main school examination, the General Certificate of secondary education (GCSE) examination is taken in England, Wales and Northern Ireland at around the age of 16. If pupils are successful, they can continue to more advanced education or training. Many study for «A» (Advanced) and «AS» (Advanced Supplementary) level qualifications. These are two-year courses in single subjects. Students usually take two or three subjects which may be combined with one or two «AS» courses, which are offered by both schools and colleges. These exams are the main standard for entry university education and to many forms of professional training.
      There is also a Certificate of Pre-Vocational Education (CPVE) for those staying at school for a year after the age of 16; this provides a preparation for work or vocation course.
      All GCSE and other qualification offered to pupils in state schools in England and Wales must be approved by the Government
    Vocabulary
    compulsory                                        обязательный                  
    nursery education                              дошкольное образование    
    career                                                 карьера  
    department                                         отдел , отделение  
    to tackle                                              иметь дело (с), заниматься
    to stipulate                                          предусматривать  
    religious                                             религиозный  
    available                                            доступный  
    to withdraw                                        удалять  
    fee-paying                                          платный

    independent                                       независимый  
    workplace activities                           работа в мастерских
    skill                                                    навык ,умение
    to perform                                          выполнять, действовать
    advanced                                            продвинутый  
    supplementary                                    дополнительный  
    vocational                                           профессиональный  
    to provide                                           обеспечивать  
    preparation                                         подготовка
    to offer                                               предлагать  
    to approve                                          одобрять

    1.Answer the following questions:

    a. What is the compulsory school age in different parts of Great Britain?

    b. What subjects does the Curriculum include?

    c. What can you sey about religious education?

    d. What other schools besides comprehensive give (provide) secondary education?

    e. How long does the school year last in Britain?

    f. What helps pupils to develop personal and commercial skills, as their teachers believe?

    g. When do teachers measure children’s progress in each subject?

    h. What information do parents receive?

    i.  What is the main school examination?

    j.  When is the GCSE examination taken?

    k. What are «A» and «AS» level qualifications?

    l.  What are these exams the main standard for?

    m. Who must approve all qualifications offered to pupils in state schools?

    2. Translate the following into English:

    a. В Англии и Уэльсе учебный год обычно начинается в сентябре и заканчивается в июле, в Шотландии он длится с августа по июнь.

    b. Ученики всех возрастов работают в школьных мастерских. Это, по мнению преподавателей, способствует развитию их индивидуальности и помогает приобрести навыки в коммерческом деле.

    c. Родителей регулярно извещают о делах и проблемах школы, в которой учится их ребенок, о его успехах.

    d. Приблизительно в возрасте 16 лет ученики сдают экзамены для получения аттестата о среднем образовании.

    e. В течение последующих двух лет они изучают две или три дисциплины для получения профессиональной подготовки или поступления в университет.

    Text 4

    EDUCATION IN BRITAIN.STATE POLICY

    1.Read for further information. Translate the text. Make up your own questions on the facts unknown to you before.

    British education has many different faces, but one goal. Its aim is to realise the potential of all, for the good of the individual and society as a whole.

    Well over 90 per cent of children of compulsory school age go to state schools. Some 60 per cent of 16-year-olds stay on in full-time education. And for adults of all ages, universities, polytechnics and other colleges provide a vast array of courses, both academic and vocational. The past few years have seen a lot of changes in Britain’s traditionally decentralised education system. The most significant in England and Wales were introduced under the Education Reform Act 1988. This led to the phasing-in of a compulsory National Curriculum for pupils aged 5 to 16 in state schools. The Act also aims to give parents a wider choice of schools for their children, and to grant schools, parents and the local community more responsibility in running school affairs.

    Local education authorities finance most schools and further education at the local level. They employ teachers and allocate budgets to school, the largest of which manage their own budgets. Every state school in England and Wales has a governing body, responsible for the school’s main policies. It includes teachers, parents and members appointed by local education-authorities. Schools can apply for «grant-maintained status». This means that they «opt out» of local education authority control and receive funding directly from central government. Parallel reforms are being introduced in both Scotland and Northern Ireland. In Scotland, 12 education authorities are responsible for providing education locally, and in Northern Ireland, public education is administered locally by five education and library boards.

    Text 5

    EDUCATION IN THE USA

    1. Read the text and identify the differences between Russian, British and American systems of education.

    2. Write a diagram similar to the one you filled in for the British system of education.

                  Americans view their public school system as an educational ladder, rising from elementary school to high school and finally college undergraduate and graduate programmes.

                  Elementary education begins at the age of six with the first grade (form) and continues through to the eighth grade. The programme of studies in the elementary school is different in different schools. It includes English, arithmetic (sometimes elementary algebra), geography, history of the USA and elementary natural science including physiology physical training, singing, drawing and handwork, wood or metal work are often taught. Sometimes a foreign language and the study of general history are begun.

                  The elementary school is followed by high school as it is called. It consists of 2 parts: Junior high and Senior high school. Junior high school is for the children aged 12 until they are 15. And the Senior high school is attended by students until they are 18. The high schools are generally larger and accommodate pupils from four or five elementary schools. During the school year the students study four or five subjects. Students must complete a certain number of courses to receive a diploma or a certificate of graduation.

                   The help Americans develop social and political skills; schools have added a large number of activities outside classroom studies to daily life. Competitive sports are perhaps the most important of these activities. Every high school has football, basketball, and baseball teams. Most schools publish their own student newspapers, have orchestras, bands, choir, theatre, and drama groups, etc. There are clubs and activities for almost every student interest, all aimed at helping the student to become more successful in later life.

                   The most common types of higher education are the colleges and universities.

                   The four-year undergraduate studies lead to a bachelor’s degree in arts and in science, or ‘college diploma’. The bachelor’s degree can be followed by professional studies. Two-year graduate studies lead to a master’s degree.

    Vocabulary

    to view                                                 рассматривать

    aim                                                       цель                                                                            

    a ladder                                                лестница        

    an undergraduate programme              неполный курс

    a graduate programme                         полный курс                  

    a grade                                              класс, ступень

    to add                                                   добавлять

    competitive sports                               виды спорта, где есть соперничество

    an orchestra                                     оркестр      

    a band                                                  ансамбль

    a choir                                                  хор

    Master’s degree                                   степень магистра

    Bachelor’s degree                                степень бакалавра

    1.Answer the following questions:

    a) How do Americans view their public school system?

    b) How long does the elementary education last?

    c) What subjects does the programme of studies in the elementary school include?

    d) What is Junior high school?

    e) What Senior high school?

    f) What must students do to receive a diploma or a certificate of graduation?

    g) Why do Americans pay much attention to competitive sports?

    h) What other extracurricular activities play an important role in American school?

    i) What are they aimed at?

    2. Answer the following question about education in Russia:

    a. Is education compulsory in Russia?

    b. How long is a child required to stay at school?

    c. Are there both public and private schools?

    d. Is it necessary to take exams to get into the university?

    e. Is there a lot of competition?

    f. How rich do you have to be to attend a university in Russia?

    g. Are there extracurricular activities in your school? If so, what are they?

    h. Do you participate in any club activity at school?

    i. How strict is discipline in your school?

    3. Translate into English:

    a. Образование в США является обязательным с 6 до 18 лет.

    b. Программа начальной школы может быть разной в разных школах.

    c. Обычно дети изучают английский язык, арифметику, географию, историю Соединенных Штатов и естественные науки, включая физиологию.

    d. Часто в программу включены физическое воспитание, пение, рисование и ручной труд.

    e. За начальной школой следует школа более высокой ступени.

    f. Учащиеся должны завершить несколько учебных курсов, чтобы получить документ об окончании школы.

    g. Каждый курс состоит из четырёх или пяти предметов, и учащиеся изучают его в течение года.

    h. Большое внимание в американской школе уделяется внеклассной деятельности учащихся.

    i. Многие ученики занимаются спортом.

    j. Большинство школ имеют собственную газету, оркестр, ансамбль, хор, театр, драматические кружки.

    TEXT 6

    PRIVATE EDUCATION

    1. Find two differences between state and independent schools in Britain.

    Seven per cent of British school children go to private schools called independent schools. There are 2,400 independent schools and they have been growing in number and popularity since the mid-1980s.

    Parents pay for these schools, and fees vary from about 250 a term for a private nursery to f.3,000 a term or more for a secondary boarding school (pupil’s board, i.e. live at the school). Some independent schools are called prep schools because they prepare the children for the Common Entrance Exam, which they take at the age of 13. This exam is for entry into the best schoosl.

    The most famous schools are called ‘public schools’ and they have a long history and tradition. It is often necessary to put your child’s name on a waiting list at birth to be sure he or she gets a place. Children of wealthy or aristocratic families often go to the same public school as their parents and their grandparents. Eton is the best known of these schools.

    The majority of independent secondary schools, including public schools, are single-sex, although in recent years girls have been allowed to join the sixth forms of boys’ schools. Independent schools also include religious schools (Jewish, Catholic, Muslim etc.) and schools for ethnic minorities.

    2.Complete the sentences:

    The most famous private schools are known as…

    Parents have to pay… for private schools.

    At 13, pupils take the…to enter public schools

    TEXT 7

    THE SCHOOL DAY

    The subjects studied in a British school

    Pre-reading

    1. Look at the timetable. Can you find any subjects which are different from those studied in your country?

    8.45

    -9.00

    9.00-9.15

    9.15-10.10

    10.20-11.05

    Break

    11.25-12.20

    Lunch time

    1.25-2.20

    2.20-3.15

    Monday

    Reg

    istr

    ati

    on

    Sch

    ool

    ass

    embly

    Geography

    Religion

    Education

    Information

    Technology

    Maths

    Science

    Tuesday

    French

    Art

    English

    History

    Science

    Wednesday

    PE

    PE

    Maths

    English

    Literature

    Science

    Thursday

    PSE Careers

    History

    English

    CDT computer

    design

    technology

    CDT

    Friday

    Geography

    Religion

    Education

    Maths

    Performing arts(music/drama)

    French

    1. Look at the timetable again for a few minutes. Now cover the timetable and answer these questions:
    1. How long is an average school day?
    2. How often do pupils have breaks?
    3. Do pupils start school earlier than in your country?
    4. Do you think the lunch break is too short or too long?
    5. Do British children go to school on Saturdays?

    TEXT 8

    DRAMATIC CHANGE - THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM

    One of the most important changes in education brought about by the Education Reform Act 1988 is the introduction of a National Curriculum for children aged 5 — 16 in all state schools in England and Wales. Until the end of the 1980s the choice of subjects to be studied and the content of the lessons were decided by each individual school. The National Curriculum has changed all of this. The subjects by this Curriculum and syllabus are decided by groups of experts working under the DES (the Department of Education and Science). Most children in Britain study the same subjects and the same syllabus, no matter where they live. It is decided on a national level.

    The National Curriculum consists of ten subjects which all pupils must study at school. The core subjects are English, Mathematics and Science. These are considered the most important because they help you to studs all the other subjects. The rest of the subjects are called foundation subjects and they include Technology (and design), Music, Art, History, Geography and Physical Education. A modem foreign language, usually French or German, is a foundation subject for all 11 — 16 year olds.

    Most schools in Britain divide the subjects and the teacher into departments. Each department is responsible for teaching a range of subjects and the teachers in the department have regular meetings to discuss the pupils' work and the syllabus. For example, the Biology, Chemistry and Physics teachers will meet with the Head of the Science Department to plan the work for pupils in that area of study.

    3. Here is a list of subjects studied in a London comprehensive school. Match them to the correct department:

       The Design and Technology Department; the Science Department; Languages                

      Department; Humanities Department.

    English language / Chemistry / Geography / Media studies / German /

     Mathematics / Religious Education (RE) /Information Technology / Physics /

    Home Economics / Social Science (sociology) / Drama /

    Photography / History / French / Biology /

    English Literature / Computing / Economics /

              Example: Biology – The Science Department

    4. Look back at the text and complete these sentences:

    a) English is a … subject.

    b) French and German are … subject.

    c) The content of each lesson is called the … .

    d) Chemistry, Physics and Biology are subject areas in the … department.

    5. What subject are core in Russian schools? Write a list of them according to the departments. Do you agree to the current school curriculum in Russia? What should be changed in your opinion?

                                                              TEXT 9

                   THE HIDDEN CURRICULUM – SCHOOL DISCIPLINE

                                                      Pre-reading

    1. What type of bad behaviour would you describe as serious? Does corporal punishment exist in your school?

    Do Russian students …?

    # wear full inform at all times

    # tie long hair back

    # give money to their teacher for safekeeping

    # come in the yard no earlier than 8.50 am and no later than 9.00 am

    # walk

    # move around school quietly

    # collect their dinner tickets before 9am

    # hand their homework in on time

    Don’t they…?

    • wear mousse, gel or hairspray on their hair
    • bring jewelry to school
    • leave money in coat pockets
    • bring sweets or chewing gum to school
    • come late
    • leave their homework until the last minute
    • break school discipline

                                 

                                         ARE SCHOOLS TOO STRICT?

    2. Read the text and write out topical words into your vocabulary.

       There are many things which pupils learn in school which are not part of the timetable of official lessons. The term ‘hidden curriculum’ is used in Britain to refer to those things pupils learn from the way their school is organized. The school’s organization includes rules, such as punctuality.

       Pupils are usually expected to arrive at lessons, assemblies and registration on time. Some pupils would say that school rules are too strict. In the famous progressive boarding school Summerhill pupils decide what lessons they do and when to do them. In more traditional schools the pupils may be punished for not having a clean school uniform, for failing to wear the school tie or for wearing earrings.

       Teachers are responsible for discipline in British school and they also follow special courses to help them work well with badly behaved pupils. A pupil is sent to the Headteacher when he has committed a serious offence. The teachers take turns to supervise the corridors and schoolyard during lunch-time. Obedience to authority and co-operation with other pupils are important values which teachers communicate to pupils as part of the ‘hidden curriculum’. Most pupils also have a form tutor; this may be the teacher who is the head of the year group. The form tutor is available to help pupils with their personal problems, give them advice on careers, exams or school reports, and is responsible for discipline when the pupil breaks a school rule. Most pupils talk to their form tutor in a PSE (psychological education) lesson.

                                              BULLYING

       In recent years, teachers and parent have become more concerned about the problem of bullying. Bullying happens when one pupil (or a group) threatens and sometimes physically attacks a younger, weaker, quieter or more timid pupil. This type of behaviour is now considered a serious offence, and articles have been published in the national press about the terrible effects that bullying and the school can suffer too. Persistent bullying of other pupils can lead to the bully being excluded. Exclusion is the worst possible punishment in British school!

    Here are some of the punishments in British schools:

    Lines: In England, when a teacher gives you ‘lines’, you write out the same sentence again and again, perhaps fifty or a hundred times. For example, ‘I must do my homework,’ or ‘I must not be late’,

    Detention: If you are ‘in detention’, you stay after school to do extra work – possibly lines – for half an hour or so.

    Report: If you are ‘on report’ you have a card which you give to the teacher at the end of every lesson. Each teacher reports if you have behaved well or badly.

    Exclusion: If you are excluded, you cannot come to school for a few days or weeks. Your parents see the headteacher, This is serious.

    Expulsion: Of you are expelled, you are sent away from your school.  This is serious. You have to go to another school where the teachers all know about your bad record.

    3. Answer the following questions:

    a) Who is responsible for discipline in British schools?

    b) Who do pupils talk to when they have problems with their homework?

    c) Why is a school bully considered to be dangerous?

    d) Compare the punishment in British school. Are the different? Do you think British schoosl are too strict?

    4. Find English equivalents in the text to the following world and word combinations:

    Ответственный; школьное расписание; пунктуальность; неписаные порядки; школа-интернет; наказывать; завуч; совершить серьёзное нарушение дисциплины; следить за порядком; послушание; куратор; дразнить; жертва; запугивать; страдать; исключение из школы.

    Reading information

    Did you know that…?

    Terms: There are normally three school terms in Britain: Autumn, Spring and Summer terms.

    Half-term: The schools usually have ‘five days holiday’ halfway through each term. Sometimes school take their pupils on trips at half-term, e.g. skiing in February or a French exchange visit.

    Holidays: This can vary from region to region. The schools usually have ten days at Christmas, ten days at Easter and six weeks in the summer from the end of July to the beginning of September.

    School meals: Students can eat lunch in the school canteen. They buy ‘dinner tickets’ at an inexpensive rate in school. Some students can have ‘free school meals’ if their parents have a low income. In recent years more and more students have decided to bring their own lunch (sandwiches), known as a ‘packed lunch’, rather than eat in the canteen. All pupils enjoy discussing how awful school food is.

    School yard: In most schools the pupils spend the breaktime and lunch hour in the school yard or on the school field. If the weather is bad they may spend break in the school hall - a very large room for assembly.

    School assembly: All school must by law organize a short daily meeting for the whole school to give important information and give some form of religious worship.

    School uniform: Even more popular in recent years. Pupils sometimes wear a blazer and a school cap (more common at private school than at state schools) or-more usually - a shirt, trousers or skirt, and sweater in the school colours, together with a school tie.

    TEXT 10

    A DAY AT ENGLISH SCHOOL

    Come and spend a day in an English school! It is nearly 9 on Monday morning, and the boys and girls are going to school again, after having had Saturday and Sunday free. Some of them walk to school, some come on their bicycles, and others who live further away from the school, come by bus. There goes the bell. The pupils are marched to the classrooms for the first lesson.

    11 o’clock is mid-morning break when most of the younger children have a drink of milk. The boys and girls go out into the play-ground where they can play until it is time to go back inside for lessons. The boys play football, and the girls play with a ball, or a skipping rope. But the older boys and girls just stand, talk and watch the games. Then the bell goes. It is time for lessons again and they all hurry inside.

    There are lessons till 1 o’clock, when it is time for lunch. The boys and girls queue up to get their lunch from the cooks. Nearly all school-children in England have their lunch at school, though some, who live very near to their school, go home.

    The break for lunch lasts about an hour. After lunch, there is still time to go out and play. In summer everyone wants to go outside in the sun, but in winter, when it is cold, everyone tries to hide in the cloakroom. The older boys and girls, who act as prefects, make the others go outside to get some fresh air. It is not good for children to be indoors all day. But when it is raining, of course, the prefects let the boys and girls go into the classroom and read, or play quietly. Many children do their homework, so that they will be free in the evening to go out with their friends, or to watch television.

    At 2 o’clock lessons start again. In this school the children not only do lessons like history, geography and maths: the girls learn to type and sew, and to cook, and the boys do metal-work and wood-work. Some schools also allow girls to do metal-work if they want to (they make jewelry for themselves) and teach cookery to boys. It is very useful to be able to cook for yourself, if your mother is away!

    At 3 o’clock it is time for games. In English schools, the girls usually play grass-hockey in winter and tennis and various team games in summer, the boys play football in winter and cricket in summer.

    Lessons are over at 4. The children collect the books they need to do their homework, hurry to the cloakroom, to fetch their hats and coats, and go home. Very soon after 4 o’clock the school is empty, except for a few children and teachers. One or two children have to stay behind as a punishment for bad behavior. Others are staying for a club which has its meeting after school. Then they wiil go home too, and the school will be empty until tomorrow!  

             

              Answer the following questions to the text:

             1. How do the boys and girls go to school again after the weekend?

             2. How do they go to school?

             3. At what time s there the mid-morning break?

              4. What do the younger children do during this break?

              5. What do the older children do during this break?

              6. When do the children have lunch?

              7. How long does the break for lunch last?

              8. What do the children do after lunch?

              9. What do the children do during the break for lunch if the weather is bad?

              10. What subjects do the children do at school?

              11. When are the lessons over?

              12. Who stays at school after 4 o’clock?

        Answer the following question about yourself:

              1. When did your lessons at school begin?

              2. How did you get to school?

              3. At what time did you have a break for breakfast?

              4. At what time did you have a break for lunch?

              5. How long did this break last?

              6. What did you use to do after lunch?

              7. How many lessons did you use to have?

              8. What subjects did you do at school?

              9. When were the lessons over?

              10. Did any stay at school after the lessons?

           

     Translate the following into English:

    1.В понедельник утром мы снова идём в школу после выходных.

    2. Кто-то идет в школу пешком, кто-то едет на автобусе.

    3. Звенит звонок, и мы расходимся по классам на первый урок.

    4. Перерыв на завтрак бывает после первого урока, и младшие ребята едят горячий завтрак.

    5. Перерыв на обед бывает примерно в час.

    6. Почти все школьники обедают в школе.

    7. После обеда еще остается время выйти на улицу подышать свежим воздухом.

    8. Если погода плохая, школьники обычно остаются в классе во время перемен.

    9. Уроки заканчиваются около трех часов.

    10. После 4 часов дня школа пустеет.

    TEXT 11

    CLASSROOM BAHAVIOUR RULES

    IN NORTH AMERICA

    It’s amasing but true!

           There are some similarities and differences in the classroom behavior rules between North America and our country. First, there is the student’s right to speak. In my language class in North America students can ask the teacher questions. The can even ask questions when the teacher is giving a lesson. Similarly, in my country students have the right to ask questions. However, they can only ask questions at the end of the class. Next, students respect their teachers. In North America students look up to teachers and respect them. For example, when the teacher asks them to speak they must look into the teacher’s eyes to show respect. Likewise, in my country students respect teachers; however, when a teacher asks us to speak we look down to show respect. We do not look into their eyes. So, there are botch similarities and differences in the way students behave toward their teachers in the classroom.

    TEXT 12

    EDUCATION & TRAINING CHOICES

    Pre-reading

    1. Here are some decisions that British students have to make.

    At 16 – stay on at school? Look for a job? apply for a place on a Youth Training Scheme?

    At 18 – go to university? get a job? start a training course? do voluntary work? travel and work abroad? move away from home?

    2. Make a list of decisions that students have to make in your education system.

    3 Read the story and do the exercises after the text.

    School or College…

    Teresa’s story

    Seventeen-year-old Teresa Moore lives in a small village in Wales…

       When I passed my GCSE exams at 16 I decided to continue my studies for two more years. My old school has a small sixth form with about twenty pupils. However, I was not too sure if I wanted to see the same old faces and teachers for another two years. I needed a change!

       The Sixth Form College in the nearest city had an open day, and helped me to decide. I was amazed by the choice of subjects they offer and the canteen and common rooms were very impressive. The pupils seemed so much more grown up, especially as they don’t have to wear boring uniforms like in the other place!

       On my first day I was sure I had made the wrong decision. The long journey (I have to change bus twice) and the sheer numbers of pupils felt overwhelming. But since then I’ve settled in, made great new friends and am really enjoying my History, German and English ‘A’ levels. I couldn’t do German at my old school; French was the only language offered. We also do extra Main Studies courses in non-examination subjects – I’ve chosen photography, journalism and theatre arts – which are really interesting and mean that you get to know lots of people outside your A level study groups. You can even do rock-climbing or motorcycling.

    4. How many subjects does Teresa study?

    5. Pupils attend a Sixth Form College five days a week from 9 am – 4 pm.  Calculate how many hours Teresa spends on each subject. (Don’t forget to subtract seven hours for breaks!)

    6. Teresa talks about the advantages and disadvantages of going to the college. Tick (v) the advantages and put a cross (x) against the disadvantages.

    # the type of people (not nice)               # the facilities

    # the distance from home                      # the choice of subjects

    # the social life (good)                          # the buildings

    # the transport                                       # the rules (e.g. clothes)

    TEXT 13

    FILLING THE GAP…

    Chandra`s story

    1. At 18…  Try to predict which of these sentences best describes Chandra`s choice:

    a) She decided to get a job.

    b) She decided to go to university.

    c) She decided to get a job before going to university.

        Eighteen - year – old Chandra Das passed her A-levels in June and has a place at London University to study pharmacy. This year she has chosen not to go straight to London. ‘I needed a year out,’ she explains.

           ‘The subject I am going to study will lead, hopefully, to a career in industry. But I realized that I didn`t know anything about the world of work. I`ve spent the past six years having a great time in my girls` boarding school but I now need a year of responsibility.

             I wrote to a few well-known pharmaceutical companies and one of them offered me a job in their laboratory as a ‘work placement’. I`m testing anti-inflammatory drugs at the moment and getting to know more about the technology used in my chosen field. Apart from gaining practical experience, I`m also earning money for the first time in my life! The company are pleased with my work and have offered to sponsor me through university. They will pay me an extra f1,800 a year while I`m studying and I can work in the labs during the holidays.

             And at the end of my studies there will be the option of working for them. ‘It has all worked out so well!’ says Chandra enthusiastically.

    2. Answer True or False:

    a. Chandra likes earning money.

    b. She is still at school.

    c. She has got sponsorship for her university course.                                  

    d. She went to a private school.  

    3. Complete this table for Chandra:

    Name of university

    Chosen subject

    Present job

    Type of employer

           

                                                 PROJECT WORK

                                             Group decision-making

    1. Work in groups of six. Imagine that you have to choose a place to study. Put these factors in order of priority from 1 to 8 (1=most important). Which ones would influence you most in making your decision?

    • Friends (Your friends are going to study there)
    • Boyfriend/girlfriend(You want to be together)
    • buildings and facilities (modern, new)
    • social life (e.g. lots of parties, discos, clubs)
    • teachers (friendly and good)
    • subjects offered (You like the timetable.)
    • the location (You want to live near/away from home.)
    • the reputation (People say it is a good place)

    2. Now discuss your list with the other members of your group. Use thus language to help you. Try to agree on a list which reflects the views of your group as a whole.

    Example:

    I think …                 I think friends are very important. I was not happy at school without my old friends.

    In my opinion …

    I prefer …

    To my mind …

    I agree …

    I disagree … I disagree, it is more important to have good teachers.

    From my point of view …

         3. Many British students take time off (usually a year) before going into higher education. Here are some examples of what they could do. Speak about advantages and disadvantages of the following ways of filling the gap in their studies. What would you prefer doing? Prove your choice.                                                                

    • work in industry
    • work on a farm
    • work abroad (washing dishes in restaurants or any job you can find)
    • travel around Europe or the world
    • help with disabled people in local centres or hostels
    • work as a volunteer with young people
    • visit sick people in hospitals
    • help on a project in Africa
    • work as au pair in Europe America

    4. Speak about differences in Russian, British and American stages of school education.

    RUSSIA

    GREAT BRITAIN

    THE USA

    Pre-school education (aged 3 - 6/7) well-developed system of kinder-gartens

    Pre-school/nursery education (aged 3 - 5)

    Pre-school education in kinder-gartens or play-groups

    Primary school (aged 6/7-9) 1-3/4 forms

    Primary school

    (infant school for 5 -7/

    junior aged 7 – 9/

    senior aged 9-11)

    Elementary school

     (6-12/13)

    8 years of studies

    Non-complete compulsory secondary education (aged 9-15) 5-9 forms

    Secondary    education (compulsory up to 16)

    11-16

    Junior high school (12/13-15)

    Complete secondary education (aged 15-16/17) 10-11 forms

    Further education up to 18     Sixth form/ college

    Senior high school (15/16-18)

           

    5. Speak about differences in the types of schools.

    RUSSIA

    GREAT BRITAIN

    THE USA

    Secondary comprehensive

    A Gymnasium

    A lyceum

    Specialized

    Private

    Secondary comprehensive

    Grammar

    Modern

    Technical

    Boarding

    Public

    State

    6. Find the meaning of the following words and word combinations in the dictionary:

    a) Assessment, estimation, evaluation, record, mark, to stimulate, to force, level, to reveal, to feel miserable, to get upset, to insult;

    b) субъективный подход, интуиция, упорство, воспитания характера, ранить самолюбие, тщеславие, придать уверенность себе, мотив, самостоятельность.

    7. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of Russian knowledge evaluation system. Find as many arguments as you can.

    Advantadges

    Disadvantadges

    1.

    2.

    1.

    2.

    8. Discuss advantages and drawbacks of Russian system of education in comparison with the British and American systems.

    9. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words.

    a) Education in the UK is …

    b) Most schools are … and there are a lot of … schools.

    c) The … consists of English, mathematics, science, history, geography, technology, music, art, physical education and, for older pupils, a modern language.

    d) Most students ... at 21 or 22 and are given their degree at a special graduation ceremony.

    e) Most schools in Britain divide the subjects and the teachers into …

    f) Primary education includes three age …

    g) Parents pay for these schools, and … vary from about f.250 a term for a private nursery to f.3, 000 a term or more for a secondary boarding school.

    h) Infant and junior schools are the stages of … education.

    i) To receive secondary education most children to go … school.

    j) At 16 pupils take a national exam called …

    k) The victim of … can suffer psychologically and the school can suffer too.

    l) The content of each lesson is called the …

                                                            PART 2

    Grammar appendix

    THE PAST PERFECFT TENSE

        Прошедшее совершенное время употребляется для выражения действия, закончившегося к определённому моменту в прошлом. Этот момент может быть определен как обстоятельством времени: by five o’clock (к пяти часам), by Saturday (к субботе), так и другим действием, выраженным глаголом в Past Simple:

    I had written a letter by 7 o’clock yesterday.

    I had finished my work when you came.

    Образование PAST PERFECT

    Утвердительная форма

    Отрицательная форма

    Вопросительная форма

    I

    had

    worked…

    been…

    gone…

    I

    had not

    (hadn’t)

    worked…

     been…

    gone…

    Had

    I

    worked…?

     been…?

    gone…?

    He

    She

    It

    He

    She

    It

    he

    she

    it

    We

    You

    They

    We

    You

    They

    we

    you

    they

    Утвердительная форма образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола had для всех лиц и третьей формы глагола либо глагола с окончанием –ed.

    HAD + Ved (V3)

    Отрицательная форма: после had ставится not.

    I had not done my homework by 5 o’clock yesterday.

    HAD + NOT +V3 (Ved) had not = hadn’t

    Вопросительная форма: had ставится перед подлежащим.

    Had you done your homework by 5 o’clock yesterday?

    HAD + подлежащее + Ved (V3)

    ! В разговорной речи had имеет сокращенный вид ‘d – эта форма присоединяется к подлежащему:

    I’d written my letter by 7 o’clock.

    РАЗЛИЧИЕ МЕЖДУ

    PAST SIMPLE И PAST PERFECT

    действие, завершившееся в какой-то момент в прошлом

    действие, завершившееся до какого-то момента в прошлом

       ! Past Perfect употребляется в сложных предложениях вместе с Past Simple. В сложных предложениях, относящихся к прошлому, то действие, которое было раньше, обозначается Past Perfect, а то, что позже – Past Simple.

       I had had dinner before mother came. (Я сначала пообедал – Past Perfect, а потом пришла мама – Past Simple)

       Указатели времени: by 5 o’clock yesterday, by the end of the week, when he came, before he came, after he came, as soon as… he came, no sooner… than, hardly…when, scarcely…when.

        By March the snow hadn’t melted yet.

       К марту снег еще не растаял.

    THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

        Обозначает длительное действие, которое началось до какого-то момента прошедшего времени и продолжалось вплоть до этого момента. Это время малоупотребительно.

    ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ

    PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

    Утвердительная

     форма

    Отрицательная

    форма

    Вопросительная

    форма

    I

    I

    I

    She

    He

    It

    had

    been..

    working..

    He

    She

    It

    had not

    been (hadn’t

    been)

    working

    Had

    he

    she

    it

    been

    working?

    We

    You

    They

    We

    You

    They

    we

    you

    they

    I had been washing the dishes for half an hour when mother came.

    EXERCISES

    1. Fill in the blanks with the correct tense form (Past Simple, Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous) оf the verbs.

    1. By the time the fire fighters ___________, the fire ___________ many huts.

    a) arrived, destroyed

    b) arrived, had destroyed

    c) had arrived, destroyed

    d) had arrived, had destroyed

    2. He was not ______ to write the exam, because he ______ his hall ticket.

    a ) permitted, had not brought

    b) permitting, had not brought

    c) permitted, did not bring

    d) permitted, was not bringing

    3. Long before the chief guest _____________, the invitees ____________ .

    a) come, assembled

    b) came, assembled

    c) came, had assembled

    d) had come, had assembled

    4. The Police ____________the thief. They __________ for him for two months.

    a) caught, looked

    b) caught, had been looking

    c) had caught, looked

    d) caught, have looked

    5. I________ to him, as I_________ to him formally.

    a) did not speak, did not introduce

    b) had not spoken, was not introduced

    c) did not speak, was not introduced

    6. By the time we ____________ the station, he train ______.

    a) reached, had left

    b) had reached, had left

    c) had reached, left

    d) reached, left

    II. Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with appropriate tenses (Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous).

       I’m sorry l left without you last night, but I told you to meet me early because the show started at 8:00. I (try)__________ to get tickets for that play for months, and I didn’t want to miss. By the time I finally left the coffee shop where we were supposed to meet, l (have ) ______five cups of coffee and l (wait) ______ over an hour. I had to leave because I (arrange )______to meet Kathy in front of the theater.

       When I arrived at the theater, Kathy(pick, already)_______ up the tickets and she was waiting for us near the entrance. She was really angry because she (wait)_______for more than half an hour. She said she (give, almost)______up and (go)________into the theater without us.

       Kathy told me you (be)______late several times in the past and that she would not make plans with you again in the future. She mentioned that she (miss)_______several movies because of your late arrivals. I think you owe her an apology. And in the future, I suggest you be on time!

    III. Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses (Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous)

    1. It is already 9:30 PM  and I (wait)_________ here for over an hour. If John does not get here in the next five minutes, I am going to leave.

    2. I was really angry at John yesterday. By the time he finally arrived, I (wait)_______ for over an hour. I almost left without him.

    3. Did you hear that Ben was fired last month? He (work)_______ for that import company for more than ten years and he (work)_________ in almost every department. Nobody knew the company like he did.

    4. I (see)_______ many pictures of the pyramids before I went to Egypt. Pictures of the monuments are very misleading. The pyramids are actually quite small.

    5. Sarah (climb)_______ the Matterhorn, (sail)________ around the world, and (go)_________ on safari in Kenya. She is such an adventurous person.

    6. Sarah (climb)______ the Matterhorn, (sail)_________ around the world, and (go)_______ on safari in Kenya by the time she turned twenty-five. She (experience)________ more by that age that most people do in their entire lives.

    7. When Melanie came into the office yesterday, her eyes were red and watery. I think she (cry)_______.

    IY. Put the verbs into the correct form using Past Perfect Simple. 

    1. The storm destroyed the sandcastle that we (build)_______.

    2. He (not/be)_______ to Cape Town before 1997.

    3. When she went out to play, she (do/already)________her homework.

    4. My brother ate all of the cake that our mum (make)_______.

    5. The doctor took off the the plaster that he (put on)________ six weeks before.

    6. The waiter brought a drink that I (not/order)________.

    7. I could not remember the poem we (learn)_______ the week before.

    8. The children collected the chestnuts that (fall)______ from the the tree.

    9. (he/ phone)_______ Angie before he went to see her in London?

    10. She (not/ride)_______ a horse before that day.

    5. Put the verbs into the correct form using Past Perfect or Past Simple.

    1. We had already eaten when John________________ (come) home.

    2. Last year Juan_______________ (pass) all his exams.

    3. When I _____________ (get) to the airport I discovered I __________ (forget)

    my passport.

    4. I went to the library, then I ______________ (buy) some milk and went home.

    5. I opened my handbag to find that I __________ (forgot) my credit card.

    6. When we __________ (arrive) at the station, the train ___________ (already, leave).

    7. We got home to find that someone _______________ (break) into the house.

    8. I opened the fridge to find someone _________________ (eat) all my chocolate.

    9. I _________________ (know) my husband for three years when we ________ (get) married.

    10) Julie was very pleased to see than John ___________ (clean) the kitchen.

                                                  The Future Perfect Tense

                                             (будущее совершенное время)  

    Обозначает действие:

    1. которое будет закончено до определенного момента в будущем:

    I will have written  a composition by 7 o’clock tomorrow.

    1. которое совершится ранее другого будущего события:

    I  will have written a composition by the time that you come.

    Future Perfect употребляется редко. Обычно оно используется в простых предложениях с обстоятельствами, указывающими на время, к которому действие будет закончено.

                                    Образование Future Perfect  

    Утвердительная форма

    Отрицательная форма

    Вопросительная форма

    I

                                         

    will have

         

    worked been gone

    I

    Will not have

    worked been gone

    Will

    I

    have

         

    Worked…? Been…?

    Gone...?

    He She It

    He She

    It

    He She

     It

    We You They

    We You They

    We You They

    Утвердительная форма: will + have + Ved (V3)

    He will have done his homework by 6 o’clock.

    Вопросительная форма: will ставится перед подлежащим.

    Will we have this work by Friday?

    Отрицательная форма: после will ставится частица not.

    He will not have gone before mother comes.

    ! Вместо Future Perfect Tense в обстоятельственных придаточных предложениях после after, when, as soon as, before, if употребляется Present Perfect.

    I will leave for Moscow as soon as I have finished my business here.

    He will not see you before I have spoken to him.

    Future Perfect Continuous Tense.

       Обозначает длительное действие в будущем, которое начнётся до какого-то момента или периода будущего времени и будет продолжаться вплоть до этого момента (периода). Эта форма глагола встречается очень редко и обычно заменяется в речи Future Perfect или Future Simple.

                      Образование Future Perfect Continuous.

    Утвердительная форма

    Отрицательная

     форма

    Вопросительная форма

    I

    will

    have

    been

    working

    I

        will

    not

    have

    been

    working

    Will

    I

    have

    been

    working?

    He

    She

    It

    He

    She

    It

    he

    she

    it

    We You They

    We

    You

    They

    we you

    they

    By the end of June we will have been studying English for two years.

    EXERCISES

    I. Combine the following pairs by changing them into the future perfect tense.

    1. The children will eat all the cake (before their mother comes).

    2. The fire will destroy the whole building. (before the firemen arrive).

    3. The patient will die (before they reach the hospital).

    4. He will leave (before you reach his place).

    5. We will pay back all our debts (before we leave this city).

    II. Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses (Future Perfect, Future Perfect Continuous).

    1.

    Jack: Have you been watching the Eco-Challenge on TV?

    Janet: Isn’t that exciting?  It has got to be the most unbelievably difficult sporting event in the world.

    Jack: I know. By the time they finish the course, they (raft) ___________ more than 150 miles down a raging river, (hike) __________ through 80 miles of jungle, (climb) ___________ a volcano and (kayak) through shark-infested waters.

    Janet: And don’t forget that they (move) ___________ for at least eight days straight.

    2.

    Oliver: When are you going to get your bachelor’s degree, Anne?

    Anne: I am going to finish my degree next June. By the time I graduate, I (go) _____________ to four different colleges and universities, and I (study) _____________ for more than seven years.

    Oliver: Wow, that’s a long time!

    Anne: And I plan to continue on to get a Ph.D.

    Oliver: Really? How long is that going to take?

    Anne: By the time I finally finish studying, I (be) ___________ a student for over 13 years.

     3.

    Max: Sarah has been in the kitchen all day long.

    Jake: It doesn’t sound like she’s having a very good Thanksgiving.

    Max: She (cook) ____________ for over seven hours by the time everyone arrives for dinner this afternoon. Hopefully, she (finish) _______________ everything by then.

    Jake: Maybe we should help her out.

    4.

    Mike: It’s 6:00, and I have been working on my essay for over three hours.

    Sid: Do you think you (finish) ______________ by 10:00? There’s a party at Donna’s tonight.

    Mike: I (complete, probably) _________________ the essay by 10:00, but I (work) ______________ on it for more than seven hours, and I don’t think I am going to feel like going to a party.

    5.

    Fred: By the time they finish their trip across Yosemite National Park, they (hike) ____________ for more than six days.

    Ginger: And they, (be, not) ______________ in a bed or (have) _________ a shower in almost a week!

    Fred: When we pick them up, they (eat) _________ camping food for days, and I am sure they will be starving.

    Ginger: I think we had better plan on taking them directly to a restaurant.

    III. Make the future perfect. Choose positive, negative or question.

    1. (I / leave by six) ________________________________________________
    2. (you/finish the report by the deadline?) _____________________________
    3. (when / we / do everything?) ______________________________________
    4. (she / finish her exams by then, so we can go out for dinner) __________________________________________________________
    5. ( you / read the book before the next class) __________________________

    __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    1. ( she / not/ finish work by seven)___________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________

    1. (when /you/ complete the work?)___________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________

    1. (they/ arrive by dinnertime)_______________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________

    1. (we/ be in London for three years next week)_________________________

    _____________________________________________________________

    1. (she/ get home by lunchtime?)__________________________________

    __________________________________________________________

    IY. Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses (Future Continuous, Future Perfect Continuous).

    1.

    Simona: Margaret is really going to speak Spanish well when she gets back from that language school in Mexico.

    Isabelle: Hopefully! She (take)______________________ classes for

    more than six months.

    Simona: She is going to be able to speak Spanish with some of our Latin American clients.

    Isabelle: Good. Two clients from Peru (visit)________________________

    us next month when Margaret returns. We need someone to entertain them

    while they are here.

    2.

    Jason: I am leaving!

    Nurse: If you would please wait, the doctor will be with you in ten minutes. The doctor is having some problems with a patient.

    Jason: The doctor was having problems with that patient an hour ago. If wait another ten minutes, I am sure he (have, still) _____________________

    problems with her. By the time he`s finally ready to see me, I (wait) _________________ for more than two hours.

     

    3.

    Frank: What are you going to be doing tomorrow at five?

    Debbie: I (paint) _____________ my living room walls.

    Frank: Still? How long have been working on your living room?

    Debbie: Forever. By the time I finish, I ( redecorate) ____________the living room for over a week.

    Frank: Too bad. I was going to ask if you wanted to see a movie. What about after tomorrow?

    Debbie: Sorry, I (move)                                  furniture and (put)                         up the drapes.                        

    4.

    Mr.Jones:  What are you going to be next year at this time?

    Mr.Mclntyre: I (work)               for a big law firm in New Orleans.

    Mr.Jones: I didn’t know you were leaving Baton Rouge.

    Mr.Mclntyre: I got a great job offer which I just can’t refuse.

    Besides, by the time I move, I (live)               in Baton Rouge for over twenty years. I think it’s about time for a change.

    ЛИТЕРАТУРА

    1. Bogoroditskaya V.N., Khrustalyova L.V. The World of Britain. М.: Издательство «Версия», 2000.
    2.  Britain and its people. London: Foreign and Commonwealth office, 1992.
    3. Clare Lavery. Focus on Britain today. London: Macmillan Publishers, 1993.
    4.  Костюкова И.А. System of Education: Методическая разработка. Н.Новгород: ВГИПА, 2004, 71с.
    5. Кошманова И.И., Енгальчева Н.А. Topics for discussion. М.: Издат-школа «Раил» 1998.
    6. Решетов А.Г. English for everyone. Ставрополь, 1993.



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