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    [Методические рекомендации] Методические рекомендации, специальность 15.02.07 Автоматизация технологических процессов и производств
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    [Методические рекомендации] Методические рекомендации, специальность Автоматизация технологических процессов и производств

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    Учебно-методические рекомендации

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    «Иностранный язык»

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    Сургут 2012

    Учебно-методические рекомендации по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» для студентов очной формы обучения по специальности 220301 «Автоматизация технологических процессов и производств»

    Сургутский профессиональный колледж,2012г.

    Составитель: Е.В.Попова, преподаватель иностранного языка

    Учебно-методические рекомендации по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» предназначены для студентов очной формы обучения по специальности 220301 «Автоматизация технологических процессов и производств» и преподавателей  учреждений начального и среднего профессионального образования

    Рекомендовано к печати методическим объединением «Лингвистика»

    Протокол № __ от «__» __________2012г.

    Рекомендовано к печати Методическим советом Сургутского профессионального колледжа

    Протокол № 1 от « 22»  сентября  2012г.

    Оглавление

    Оглавление  

    Пояснительная записка

    Unit 1   Nouns

    Unit 2   Pronouns

    Unit 3   Adjectives and Adverbs

    Unit 4   Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers

    Unit 5   Common and Decimal Fractions

    Unit 6  Measurements. Time            

    Unit 7   Measurements. Length. Mass

    Unit 8   Measurements. Temperature

    Unit 9   Measurements. Weights and Measures

    Unit 10  Meters

    Unit 11  The Future of the Engineering Profession

    Unit 12  Electronic and Mechanical Engineering

    Unit 13  Electrical Engineering

    Unit 14  Tense Forms (Active Voice)

    Unit 15  Review of Tenses

    Unit 16  Modal Verbs and Their Equivalents

    Unit 17 The First Calculating Device

    Unit 18  Computers in Our Life

    Unit 19  Conversion

    Unit 20  Functions of the Infinitive

    Unit 21  Tense Forms (Passive Voice)

    Unit 22  Complex Object

    Unit 23  Automation

    Unit 24  Automation in Industry

    Unit 25  Mechanical Properties of Materials Used in Industry

    Unit 26  Units and Conditions Measured by Automatic Elements

    Unit 27  Types of Automation

    Unit 28  Automated Production Lines

    Unit 29  Numerical Control

    Unit 30  Automated Assembly

    Unit 31  History of Robotics

    Unit 32  Robots in Manufacturing

    Unit 33  Famous People. James Watt      

    Unit 34  Famous People. Thomas Edison

    Unit 35  Famous People. Isaac Newton

    Unit 36  Famous People. N.I.Lobachevsky

    Unit 37  Famous People. I.I.Sikorsky. A.N.Tupolev

    Unit 38 Safety Engineering

    Unit 39  Safety in Manufacturing

    Unit 40  Revise of the Achievements

    Рекомендуемая литература

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    4

    6

    7

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    9

    12

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    84

    Пояснительная записка

           Учебно-методические рекомендации предназначены  для подготовки и проведения практических занятий по дисциплине «Английский язык» в учреждениях среднего и начального профессионального образования. Рекомендации  разработаны для студентов по специальности 220301 «Автоматизация технологических процессов и производств» и соответствуют требованиям программы по данной дисциплине.

            Количество практических заданий для аудиторной работы соответствует учебной программе  

           Последовательность грамматических и текстовых материалов в рекомендациях имеет логическую направленность, соответствующую логике структуры изучения английского языка в контексте  данной специальности. В пособии реализована преемственность лексических единиц, их многократная повторяемость в разных контекстах.

          В учебно-методических рекомендациях по дисциплине представлены тематические текстовые материалы для закрепления навыка перевода технических текстов с целью извлечения необходимой информации, задания на закрепление коммуникативных навыков, упражнения на расширение словарного запаса и образование потенциального профессионального словаря, грамматические таблицы, тренировочные задания для активизации знаний грамматических форм и синтаксических оборотов.

    Целью учебно-методических рекомендаций по дисциплине «Английский язык»   для проведения практических занятий является:

    - расширение потенциального словаря профессиональной лексики;

    - формирование у студентов навыков устной речи по профессиональной тематике, в

      различных контекстах профессиональной направленности;

    - развитие потребности и умения пользоваться справочной литературой

      профессионального характера;

    - развитие умения высказываться целостно, как в смысловом, так и в структурном

      отношении;

    - развитие навыков чтения с полным пониманием основного содержания текстов

      профессионального характера;

    - активизация знания грамматических форм и синтаксических оборотов,

      употребительных в специальной профессиональной литературе.

    Согласно ФГОС специальности 220301 «Автоматизация технологических процессов и производств»

    студенты должны уметь:

    - общаться (устно и письменно) на английском языке на профессиональные и

      повседневные темы;

    - переводить (со словарем) иностранные тексты профессиональной

      направленности;

    - самостоятельно совершенствовать устную и письменную речь, пополнять

      словарный запас;

    студенты должны знать:

    - лексический (1200-1300 лексических единиц) и грамматический минимум,

      необходимый для чтения и перевода (со словарем) иностранных текстов

      профессиональной направленности;

    овладеть общими компетенциями:

    - понимать сущность и социальную значимость своей будущей профессии,

      проявлять к ней устойчивый интерес;

    - организовывать собственную деятельность, определять методы и способы

      выполнения  профессиональных задач, оценивать их эффективность и качество;

    - решать проблемные задачи и принимать решения в нестандартных ситуациях;

    - осуществлять поиск, анализ и оценку информации, необходимой для постанов-

      ки и решения профессиональных задач, профессионального и личностного

      развития;

    - работать в коллективе и команде, обеспечивать ее сплочение;

    - использовать информационно-коммуникационные технологии для совершенст-

      вования профессиональной деятельности;

     - самостоятельно определять задачи профессионального и личностного развития,

       заниматься самообразованием, осознанно планировать повышение квалификации

       

         Unit 1

    Nouns

     1.Decide which of the following nouns are countable or uncountable

        Time, machine, silver, hour, information, instruction, material, stress, ability, gas,

         water, crack, strength, chemist, steel, theory, program, system, gold, production,

         drawing, circuit, component.

    2.Write down the following nouns in plural

       Engineer, factory, tool, workman, information, company, device, position, industry,

       energy, resistance, car, source, method, surface, motor, type, heat, electrode, tube,

       inventor, plant, calculation, material.

    3.Form the nouns

       a) research – researcher                                 b) form - forming

           sense - ..........................                                 operate - .........................

           conduct - ......................                                 build up - .......................

           engine - ........................                                 use - ...............................

           invent - .........................                                 increase - .......................

       c) operate – operation                                     d) move – movement

           state - ............................                                 develop - .........................      

           insert - ..........................                                  entertain - .......................

           posit - ...........................                                  improve - ........................

     

    4.Complete the text with the suitable nouns from the list, read the text and translate it  into Russian.

      Nouns: investigations, conductor, physicists, relation, electricity, resistance,

                   temperature,operation,unit, conversion, methods, law.

    James Prescott Joule

          James Prescott Joule, famous British physicist , was born in 1818 in Safford, England.

          Joule was one of the most outstanding ... of his time. He is best known for his research    in ... and thermodynamics. In the course of his ... of the heat emitted in an electrical  circuit, he formulated the law, now known as Joule’s law of electric heating. This ... states

    that the amount of heat produced each second in a ... by electric current is proportional to the ... of the conductor and to the square of the current. Joule experimentally verified the

    law of conservation of energy in his study of the ... of mechanical energy into heat energy.

          Joule determined the numerical ... between heat and mechanical energy, or the mechanical equivalent of heat, using many independent ... . The ... of energy, called the joule, is named after him. Together with the physicist William Thomson (Baron Kelvin),

    Joule found that the ... of a gas falls when it expands without doing any work. This phenomenon, which became known as the Joule-Thomson effect, lies in the ... of modern

    refrigeration and air-conditioning systems.

    Unit 2

    Pronouns

    Some, any, no

    1.Use the suitable indefinite pronoun

       1.If the patrol tank is empty, pour (some, any, no) petrol into it.

       2.There was (some, any, no) water in the radiator, so we had to refill it.

       3.This mechanic can repair (some, any, no) type of engine.

       4.The book contained (some, any, no) diagrams.

       5. We have (some, any, no) information on this problem.

       6. The Metric System has (some, any, no) advantages over the English System.

       7.Do you remember  (some, any, no) facts from Newton’s biography?

       8.The young engineer had (some, any, no) experience in such work.

    2.Separate these two-part verbs with the pronouns “it” or “them”

       1. Lift up the boxes.                                     ..Lift them up.................

       2. Turn on the lights.                                    ......................................

       3.  Fill in the order form.                              ......................................

       4. Hold down the springs.                             .....................................

       5. Slow down the machine.                           ......................................

       6. Take off the wheels.                                    ......................................

       7. Switch off the power.                                 ......................................

       8. Take off your facemask.                            ......................................

       9. Put on the safety gloves.                            ......................................

    3. Translate into English. Use the suitable pronoun from the list

    Much, many, little, a little, few, a few

    Countable

    Uncountable

    many-много

    much-много

    few-мало, но достаточно

    little-мало, но достаточно

    a few-мало (недостаточно)

    a little-мало (недостаточно)

    A Translate into English. Use the suitable pronoun from the table

        много машин, много воды, много приборов, много времени, много света,

       много инструментов, много открытий, много тепла, много лучей, много

       экспериментов,много энергии, много силы, много заводов;

    B Translate into Russian. Use the suitable pronoun from the table

       1.There’s ... light in the room, it’s too dark.

       2. Robots have become essential to ... laboratory procedures.

       3. He has done ... improvements and the machine started to work again.

    4.Translate into Russian. Find the pronouns, explain its usage

       1.There’s a little doubt that computers and their applications are among the most

           significant technical achievements of the centuries.

       2.The metric standard – kilogram is a solid cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy

           maintained at constant temperature at Sevres, near Paris, its copies (as exact as  

           possible) are maintained by national standards laboratories in many countries.

       3.Much  researches in electronics are directed towards creating even smaller

          chips and faster switches of components.

    Unit 3

    Adjectives and adverbs

    Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий

    1. Односложные (и некоторые двусложные) прилагательные и наречия образуют сравнительную степень путем прибавления суффикса -еr, превосходную путем прибавления суффикса -est:

            high — higher — the highest (высокий — выше — самый высокий),

            big — bigger — the biggest (большой — больше — самый большой).

    Прилагательные и наречия, оканчивающиеся на -у, меняют окончание на -ier и

    -iest.Конечная согласная у односложных прилагательных и наречий удваивается.

    Например: happy — happier — the happiest

                       hot — hotter — the hottest

    2. Многосложные прилагательные и наречия, оканчивающиеся на -1у, образуют

    сравнительную степень путем прибавления слов more (less),

    превосходную — путем прибавления слов most (least)

             interesting — more (less) interesting — most (least) interesting,

             easily — more (less) easily — most (least) easily.

    3. Ряд прилагательных и наречий являются исключениями:

          good, well (хороший, хорошо) — better (лучше) — the best (самый хороший),

          bad (плохой) — worse (хуже) — the worst (самый плохой)

          little (маленький, мало) — less (меньше) — the least (наименьший)

          many (much) — more — the most

          far — farther (further) — the farthest (furthest)

    Существительное, определяемое прилагательным в превосходной степени, всегда имеет определенный артикль: the largest building.

    1. Make up comparative and superlative forms of the listed below adjectives  

        good, productive, important, large, simple, difficult, wide, famous, modern, interesting,

        universal, possible, sharp, small, bad, intelligent, high.

    2.Translate the sentences with comparison constructions into Russian

       1.Microsoft corporation is oriented to produce as many programs as needed to meet

          people needs and make them buy specific brand-name products.

       2.As we know it is so well hidden that you’ll rarely give it a thought.

       3.Copies, as exact as possible, of this standard are maintained by national standards

          laboratories in many countries.

    3.Find the root of the words and give their translation

        ...........................                 previously

        ...........................                 especially

        ...........................                 usually

         ..........................                 recently

         ..........................                 widely

        ...........................                early

        ...........................                 automatically

        ...........................                 independently

         ..........................                 originally

         ...........................                experimentally

        ............................                constantly

    4.Match the phrases with their translation                                     

       1. devoted entirely                             a) эффективно управлять

       2. regulated automatically                 b) регулироваться автоматически          

       3. universally measured                     c) высокоразвитый

       4. operate efficiently                          d) чрезвычайно высокий

       5. greatly increased                            e) постоянно становиться

       6. extremely high                               f) посвятить (себя чему-либо) полностью                          

       7. constantly become                         g) всемирно измеряемый

       8. highly developed                           h) проводимый попеременно

       9. admitted alternately                       i) сильно возрастать

    5.Derive the adjective from the noun

       1. history – historical

       2. science –

       3. industry –

       4. agriculture –

       5. administration -

    Unit 4

    Количественные числительные.

    Vocabulary

    addition-сложение                                          to multiply-умножить

    subtraction-вычитание                                   to divide-разделить

    plus-плюс                                                       to equal-равняться, быть равным

    minus-минус

    1.Complete the puzzle. Write these numbers in words

    1           10          11            12          2           20              3              13

    90         4            40            5            50         16              7               8

    F

    S

    T

        N

     

    F

    V

    W

    O

    Y

    T

    E

    T

    Y

    E

    Y

    F

    L

    T

    R

    N

    Порядковые числительные

    first-первый                               fifth-пятый

    second-второй                            fiftieth-пятидесятый

    third-третий                                fifty-fifth-пятьдесят пятый

    2.Number the days of the week                    3.Number the seasons of the year

    .......................  Tuesday                                      .................... autumn

    .......................  Wednesday                                 .................... winter

    .......................  Monday                                      .................... summer

    ................... ... Thursday                                     .................... spring  

    ......................   Saturday

    ................... ...  Sunday

    .......................  Friday

    4.Number the months of the year

    ...................... October                    .................... April

    ...................... July                          .................... September

    ...................... January                    ....................  March

    ...................... June                         ....................  November

    ...................... February                  ....................  May

    ...................... December                .................... August

    5.Solve these problems

        1. 99+77=                    5) 315+145=                          9) 1203+419=

        2) 61-50=                     6) 859-600=                          10) 115-32=

        3) 175:25=                   7) 10770:10=                         11) 49:7=

        4) 12х12=                    8) 3550х5=                            12) 234х7=

    6.Choose the right answer

        1.Seventeen ... thirteen equals two hundred and twenty-one.

              a) times (multiplied by)

              b) divided by

              c) minus

              d) plus

        2.Eighty-one ... thirty-three equals forty-eight

              a) times (multiplied by)

              b) divided by

              c) minus

              d) plus

        3.One thousand and twenty-five ... twenty-five equals forty-one.

               a) times (multiplied by)

              b) divided by

              c) minus

              d) plus

    7.Find the missing numbers

       Example

           4, 5, 6, ... ,8, ...      seven, nine

         

        1. 13, 15, ... , ... , 21, 23, 25.

        2. 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, ... , 32%, ... .

        3.  ... , 1 600, 1 800, 2 000, ... .

        4. 1, 2, 4, 7, ... , 16, ... ,31.

        5. ... , 5 555, ... , 3 333, 2 222.

        6. 20, 10, 5, 2 ½, ... , 5/8, ... .

        7. 1 ¼, 2 ½, ... , 5, 6 ¼, ... , 8 ¾.

        8. 100, 10 000, ... , 100 000 000, ... .

    Unit 5

    Дробные числа

           Common fractions                                                          Decimal fractions

                                                     

           ½- one half (a half)                                               0,7-nought (zero; O) point seven

          1/3- one third (a third)                                           0,002-zero point two zeros two

          2/7- two sevenths                                                  1,1-one point one

          3 ½-three and a half                                              5,36-five point three six  

          5 1/7-five and a seventh                                       65,57-sixty-five point five seven

          6 5/7-six and five sevenths

    1.Read these common and decimal fractions

       1/3; 0,23; 2/5; 0,009; 5/8; 10,01; 7 ½; 205,35; 9 5/8; 79,31; 15 8/9; 0,0003.

    2.Match the numbers and the way of their reading

       A. 1. ¾               a) three quarters                        B. 1. 60%          a) one third

            2. 5.68           b) two point two percent              2. 2.87          b) three and a half

            3. 7 ½            c) five point six eight                   3. 1/3            c) two point eight seven

            4. 2.2%          d) seven and a half                       4. 3 ½           d) sixty percent

    3.Write these words as numbers

        three and five sixths                     .........................

        ninety-three per cent                    .........................

        a thousand and nine                     .........................

       one thousand seven hundred         .........................

       eighteen hundred                           .........................

    4. Read the text and find in it the answers to the question that follows it

    Voltage Values

          Voltages up to about 250 V are called low. The common electric lightning circuit operates either at about 127 or 200 V, and the voltage used on the main circuit of large houses is usually the same. One can get an electric shock, when one touches an uninsolated wire of such a circuit.

          Voltages above 250 V are high voltages. They are used in industry. Medium-powered motors are usually operated at 380 V. Large motors are supplied by voltages of from about 500 up to 6000V.

    What have you read about?

    Unit 6

    Measurements

    Saying times

    We can say times in different ways:

    British English

          07:00                             07:15                                 15:30  

    It’s seven o’clock         It’s seven fifteen                It’s three thirty

    It’s seven                     It’s quarter past seven        It’s half past three

           20:45                               18:10                              11:55

    It’s eight forty-five           It’s six ten                    It’s eleven fifty-five

    It’s quarter to nine            It’s ten past six             It’s five to twelve

    American English-quarter to nine or quarter of nine; ten past six or ten after six; five to twelve or five of twelve

    1. Match the times with the clock

         1. It’s five to one.                    a) 15:00    

         2. It’s eight fifteen.                  b) 13:50

         3. It’s half past four.                c)  11:45

         4. It’s six twenty-five.             d)  20:15

         5. It’s half past three.              e)  16:30  

         6. It’s three o’clock.                f)  06:25

         7. It’s eleven forty-five.         g) 12:05

         8. It’s ten to two.                     h) 03:30

    2.Write the times in a different way

       1. It’s five to one.                        It’s twelve fifty-five.

       2. It’s ten to five.                         .................................

       3. It’s eight fifteen.                       ................................

       4. It’s eleven thirty-five.              ................................

       5. It’s half past one.                     ................................

       6. It’s seven o’clock.                    ...............................

       7. It’s six forty-five.                   ...............................

       8. It’s half past eleven.                 ...............................

    3. Read the information and write the times

       1. It’s 04:30 in Berlin. New York is five hours behind Berlin. What’s the time in    New York?          11:30

       2. You get up at 06:45. Breakfast takes half an hour. It takes you twenty minutes to drive to work. When do you arrive at work?   ....................

       3. Your train leaves at 09:25. The journey takes forty-five minutes. When do you arrive at the station?   ..................

       4. It is now 14:25 and you have a meeting. It takes you five minutes to walk to the meeting. The meeting lasts an hour. Then you walk back to your office. What’s the time when you arrive back in your office?   .....................

       5. Your flight is at 02:30. You want to arrive at the airport one hour before the flight leaves. It takes forty-five minutes to drive to the airport. When do you have to leave home?   .....................

       6. You finish work at 17:30. It takes you forty minutes to drive home. Today you want to stop on the way home and go shopping for an hour. When do you arrive home?   ....................            

    4.Read the text and retell it

    Time

           For centuries, time has been universally measured in terms of the rotation of the earth. The second, the basic unit of time, was defined as 1/86 400 of a mean solar day or one complete rotation of the earth on its axis in relation to the sun. Scientists discovered, however, that the rotation of the earth was not constant enough to serve as the basis of the time standard. As a result, the second was redefined in 1967 in terms of the resonant frequency of the cesium atom, that is, the frequency at which this atom absorbs energy: 9,192,631,770 Hz (hertz, or cycles per second).

    axis-ось

    cesium-цезий

    absorb-поглощать

    Unit 7

    1.Read the text and find in it the answers to the questions that follow it

    Measurements

    Metric system is a decimal system of physical units, named after its unit of length, the meter. The metric system is adopted as the common system of weights and measures by the majority of countries, and by all countries as the system used in scientific work.

    Length

    The meter had its origin in the metric system. By international agreement, the standard meter had been defined as the distance between two fine lines on a bar of platinum-iridium alloy. The 1960 conference redefined the meter as 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of the reddish-orange light emitted by the isotope krypton-86. The meter was again redefined in 1983 as the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second.

    Mass

    When the metric system was created, the kilogram was defined as the mass of 1 cubic decimeter of pure water at the temperature of its maximum density or at 4.0 °C.

      2.Build the sentences from the words

         1. we / products / make / energy / use / we / when.

         2. industry / important / are / in / metals.

         3. automation / is / of / numerical / programmable / a form / control.

         4. to / ancient / the / of / concept / dates back / times / robots.

         5. robot / Japan / advanced / is / the most / technology / nation / exploring.

         6. system / a / physical / of / units / system / metric / is / decimal.

         7. has / very / safety / become / in / engineering / recent / popular / years.

    3. Remember the meaning of following verbs and make up their derivative words,

       for example: to calculate — calculating, calculator, calculation.

    To compute, to invent, to know, to multiply, to divide, to depend, to solve, to provide, to process, to code, to use, to manipulate, to assemble, to connect, to inform, to instruct, to discover, to operate.

    4.Read and learn linear and square measures

    Linear measure

    1 mile (ml) миля = 1.609 kilometers

    1 yard (yd) ярд = 91.44 centimeters

    1 foot (ft) фут = 30.48 centimeters

    1 inch (in) дюйм = 2. 54 centimeters

    Square measure

    1 square mile (ml2 ) кв.миля = 2. 59 square kilometers

    1 acre (a.) акр = 0.405 hectare

    1 square yard (yd 2 ) кв.ярд = 0.836 square meter

    1 square foot (ft 2 ) кв.фут = 929 square centimeters

    1 square inch (in2) кв.дюйм = 6.45 square centimeters   

    Unit 8

    1.Read the text and find in it the answers to the questions that follow it

    Measurements

            Metric system is a decimal system of physical units, named after its unit of length, the meter. The metric system is adopted as the common system of weights and measures by the majority of countries, and by all countries as the system used in scientific work.

    Temperature

    The temperature scale is based on a fixed temperature, that of the triple point of water at which it's solid, liquid and temperature gaseous. The freezing point of water was designated as 273.15 К, equaling exactly 0° on the Celsius temperature scale. The Celsius scale, which is identical to the centigrade scale, is named after the 18th-century Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius, who first proposed the use of a scale in which the interval between the freezing and boiling points of water is divided into 100 degrees. By international agreement, the term Celsius has officially replaced centigrade.

    One feature of SI is that some units are too large for ordinary use and others too small. To compensate, the prefixes developed for the metric system have been borrowed and expanded. These prefixes are used with all three types of units: base, supplementary, and derived. Examples are millimeter (mm), kilometer/hour (km/h), megawatt (MW), and microfarad (pF). Because double prefixes are not used, and because the base unit name kilogram already contains a prefix, prefixes are used not with kilogram but with gram. The prefixes hecto, deka, deci, and centi are used only rarely, and then usually with meter to express areas and volumes. In accordance with established usage, the centimeter is retained for body measurements and clothing.

    In cases where their usage is already well established, certain other units are allowed for a limited time, subject to future review. These include the nautical mile, knot, angstrom, standard atmosphere, hectare, and bar.

    2.Answer the questions

      1. What is the temperature scale based on?

      2. Whom is the Celsius temperature scale named after?

      3. Where are three types of the units (base, supplementary, derived) used?

      4. What prefixes are used to express areas and volumes?

      5. When are certain other units allowed for a limited time, subject to future review?

    3.Match the phrases with the Russian equivalents

      1.supplementary units               a.линейные единицы измерения

      2.decimal system                      b.морская миля

      3.international agreement         c.неизменные стандарты

      4.unchanging standards            d.метрическая система мер

      5.established usage                   e.физическая единица измерения

      6.linear measurement                f.точный и чёткий

      7.until recently                          g.международное соглашение

      8.physical unit                            h.дополнительные единицы измерения

      9.metric system                          i.десятичная система

      10.nautical mile                         j.до последнего времени

      11.accurate and definite             k.общепринятое употребление

      12.principle standard                 l.основной стандарт

    4.Read and learn cubic measures

    Cubic measure

    1 register ton (ne) тонна регистровая =2.83 cubic meters

    1 stack стек = 3.04 cubic meters

    1 cubic yard (yd 3) куб.ярд =0.76 cubic meter

    1 cubic foot (ft 3) куб.фут = 0.028 cubic meter

    1 cubic inch (in3) куб.дюйм = 16.39 cubic centimeters

    Unit 9

    1.Read the text and find in it the answers to the questions that follow it

    Measurements

    Metric system is a decimal system of physical units, named after its unit of length, the meter. The metric system is adopted as the common system of weights and measures by the majority of countries, and by all countries as the system used in scientific work.

    Weights and Measures

          Length, capacity, and weight can be measured using standard units. The principal early standards of length were the palm of hand breadth, the foot, and the cubit, which is the length from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. Such standards were not accurate and definite. Unchanging standards of measurement have been adopted only in modern time.

          In the English speaking world, the everyday units of linear measurement were traditionally the inch, foot, yard and mile. In Great Britain, until recently, these units of length were defined in terms of the imperial standard yard, which was the distance between two lines on a bronze bar made in 1845.

         In Britain units of weight (ounces, pounds, and tones) are now also derived from the metric standard – kilogram. This is a solid cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy maintained at constant temperature at Sevres, near Paris. Copies, as exact as possible, of this standard are maintained by national standards laboratories in many countries.

          International System of Units is a system of measurement units based on MKS (meter-kilogram-second) system. This international system is commonly referred to as SI.

          At the Eleventh General Conference on Weights and Measures, held in Paris in 1960 standards were defined for six base units and two supplementary units.

    2.Answer the questions

    1.What does the term “metric system” mean?

    2.What were the early principal standards of length?

    3.What were traditional units of linear measurements in the English-speaking  

       world?

    4.What is International System of Units based on?

    5.What was the important decision of the Conference in Paris in 1960?

    3.Match the phrases with the Russian equivalents

    1.supplementary units               a.линейные единицы измерения

    2.decimal system                      b.большинство стран

    3.scientific work                       c.неизменные стандарты

    4.unchanging standards            d.метрическая система мер

    5.solid cylinder                         e.физическая единица измерения

    6.linear measurement                f.точный и чёткий

    7.until recently                          g.научная работа

    8.physical unit                            h.дополнительные единицы измерения

    9.metric system                          i.десятичная система

    10.majority of countries             j.до последнего времени

    11.accurate and definite             k.цельный цилиндр

    12.principle standard                 l.основной стандарт

    4.Read and learn  weight  measures

    Weight measure

    1 ton(ne) (tn) (gross, long) тонна (большая, длинная) = 1.016 kilogram(me)s

    1 ton(ne) (sh.tn) (net, short) тонна (малая, короткая) = 907.18 kilogram(me)s

    1 hundredweight (cwt) (gross, long)(большой, длинный) =

       = 50.8 kilogram(me)s

    1 hundredweight (cwt) (net, short) (малый, короткий) =

       = 45.36 kilogram(me)s

    1 stone стоун, стон = 6.35 kilogram(me)s

    1 pound (1b) фунт = 453.59 gram(me)s

    1 ounce (oz) унция = 28.35 gram(me)s

    1 grain гран = 64.8 milligram(me)s

    Unit 10

    Meters

    Vocabulary

    to take into consideration – принимать во внимание

    permanent – постоянный

    deflection – отклонение стрелки (приборов)

    angle – угол

    rotation – вращение, периодическое повторение

    coil – катушка

    detect – выявлять, находить

    resistance – сопротивление

    in series – последовательно

    1.Read the text and find in it the answers to the questions that follow it

       One of the important things that an engineer should take into consideration is “how much?” How much current is this circuit carrying? What is the value of voltage in the circuit? What is the value of resistance? In fact, to measure the current and the voltage is not difficult at all. One should connect an ammeter or a voltmeter to the circuit and read off the amperes and the volts.

        Common ammeters for d.c. measurements are the ammeters of the magneto-electric system. In an ammeter of this type an armature coil rotates between the poles of a permanent magnet; but the coil turns only through a small angle. The greater the current in the coil, the greater the force, and, therefore, the greater the angle of rotation of the armature. The deflection is measured by means of a pointer connected to the armature and the scale of the meter reads directly in amperes.

        When the currents to be measured are very small, one should use a galvanometer. Some galvanometers detect measure currents as small as 10 -11  of an ampere per 1 mm of the scale.

        A voltmeter is a device to be used for measuring the potential difference between any two points in a circuit. A voltmeter has armatures that move when an electric current is sent through their coils. The deflection, like that of ammeter, is proportional to the current flowing through the armature coil.

        A voltmeter must have a very high resistance since it passes only very small current which will not disturb the rest of the circuit. An ammeter, on the other hand, must have a low resistance, since all the current must pass through it. In actual use the ammeter is placed in series with the circuit, while the voltmeter is to be measured.

       In addition to instruments for measuring current and voltage, there are also devices for measuring electric power and energy.

    2.Answer the questions

      1.What is the above article about?

      2.What are common ammeters?

      3.What is a voltmeter used for?

      4.What meter can be used when the currents to be measured are very small?

    3.Choose the right answer

        1.The meter which is used to measure the value of the resistance is ... .

               a) ohmmeter

               b) ammeter

               c) voltmeter

               d) bulb

        2.The ohmmeter serves to measure ...

    1. power
    2. resistance
    3. voltage
    4. current

       3. Any instrument which measures electrical values ... a meter.

               a) is called

               b) was called

               c) had been called

               d) is

    5.Complete the table

    What is it?

    a clock

    thermo-

    meter

    a gauge

    a tape

    measure

    scales

    a volt-

    meter

    What does it measure?

    time

    What are the units of measurement?

    hours,

    minutes,

    seconds

    Unit 11

    The Future of the Engineering Profession

    1. Answer the question using the phrases below.

       A. What kind of work are you interested in?

    a) well paid

    b) interesting

    c) in a large and famous company

    d) quiet

    e) in an industry which has a future

    f) prestigious

    g) not to sit the whole day in the office

    h) to travel a lot

       B. What position would you like to have?

    a) to manage people — manager

    b) to work for someone else — an employee

    c) to be your own boss — self-employed, businessman

    d) to be responsible for everything — top manager, director

    e) to work for the state — state employee

    2. Please discuss with your group advantages and disadvantages of your future  

        profession.

       A. Do you think that engineering profession is prestigios?

       B. Is it well-paid?

       C. How difficult is it to find a good work in this field?

    The Future of the Engineering Profession

    Vocabulary

    widespread – широко распространенный

    to increase – увеличивать

    to determine – определять

    ergonomics – эргономика

    Among various recent trends in the engineering profession computerization is the most widespread. The trend in modern engineering offices is also towards computerization. Computers are increasingly used for solving complex problems as well as for handling, storing, and generating the enormous volume of data modern engineers must work with.

    Scientific methods of engineering are applied in several fields not connected directly to manufacture and construction. Modern engineering is characterized by the broad application of what is known as systems engineering principles.

    Engineers in industry work not only with machines but also with people, to determine, for example, how machines can be operated most efficiently by workers. A small change in the location of the controls of a machine or of its position with relation to other machines or equipment, or a change in the muscular movements of the operator, often results in greatly increased production. This type of engineering work is called time-study engineering.

    A related field of engineering, human-factors engineering, also known as ergonomics, received wide attention in the late 1970s and 1980s when the safety of nuclear reactors was questioned following serious accidents that were caused by operator errors, design failures, and malfunctioning equipment.

    Human-factors engineering seeks to establish criteria for the efficient, human-centered design of, among other things, the large, complicated control panels that monitor and govern nuclear reactor operations.

    3. Answer the questions

      1. What is the most widespread trend in the engineering profession?

      2. What are computers used for in modern engineering?

      3. What approaches are used in modern engineering?

      4. What is «ergonomics»?

      5. What does human-factors engineering deal with?

    4.Retell closely to the text

    Unit 12

    Electronic Engineering                   

    Vocabulary

    prior-1.важный; 2.предшествующий                          

    unprecedented-беспрецедентный

    unabated-неослабленный

    bulky-громоздкий

    1. Read the text and translate it

    Electronic engineering deals with the research, design, integration, and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information. Information is now generated, transmitted, received, and stored electronically on a scale unprecedented in history, and there is every indication that the explosive rate of growth in this field will continue unabated.

    Electronic engineers design circuits to perform specific tasks, such as amplifying electronic signals, adding binary numbers, and demodulating radio signals to recover the information they carry. Circuits are also used to generate waveforms useful for synchronization and timing, as in television, and for correcting errors in digital information, as in telecommunications.

            Prior to the 1960s, circuits consisted of separate electronic devices — resistors, capacitors, inductors, and vacuum tubes — assembled on a chassis and connected by wires to form a bulky package. The electronics revolution of the 1970s and 1980s set the trend towards integrating electronic devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other semiconductive material. The complex task of manufacturing these chips uses the most advanced technology, including computers, electron-beam lithography, micro-manipulators, ion-beam implantation, and ultraclean environments. Much of the research in electronics is directed towards creating even smaller chips, faster switching of components, and three-dimensional integrated circuits.

    2. Make the plan to the text and retell it

    Mechanical Engineering

    Vocabulary

    goods - товары

    therefore – таким образом

    efficiency - эффективный

    3. Read the text and translate it

    Engineers in this field design, test, build, and operate machinery of all types; they also work on a variety of manufactured goods and certain kinds of structures. The field is divided into (1) machinery, mechanisms, materials, hydraulics, and pneumatics; and (2) heat as applied to engines, work and energy, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. The mechanical engineer, therefore, must be trained in mechanics, hydraulics, and thermodynamics and must know such subjects as metallurgy and machine design. Some mechanical engineers specialize in particular types of machines such as pumps or steam turbines. A mechanical engineer designs not only the machines that make products but the products themselves, and must design for both economy and efficiency. A typical example of modern mechanical engineering is the design of a car or an agricultural machine.

    4. Make the plan to the text and retell it

     

    Unit 13

    Electrical  Engineering

    Vocabulary

    diverse-разнообразный                                to transmit-передавать

    to concern-иметь отношение                        to distribute-распределять

    despite-вопреки                                             to reduce-сокращать

    thereby-таким образом                                

    1. Read the text and translate it

    Electrical and electronics engineering is the largest and most diverse field of engineering. It is concerned with the development and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use electric power and signals. Among the most important subjects in the field are electric power and machinery, electronic circuits, control systems, computer design, superconductors, solid-state electronics, medical imaging systems, robotics, lasers, radar, consumer electronics, and fiber optics.

    Despite its diversity, electrical engineering can be divided into four main branches: electric power and machinery, electronics, communications and control, and computers.

    Electric Power and Machinery

    The field of electric power is concerned with the design and operation of systems for generating, transmitting, and distributing electric power. Engineers in this field have brought about several important developments since the late 1970s. One of these is the ability to transmit power at extremely high voltages in both the direct current (DC) and the alternating current (AC) modes, reducing power losses proportionately. Another is the real time control of power generation, transmission, and distribution, using computers to analyze the data fed back from the power system to a central station and thereby optimizing the efficiency of the system while it is in operation.

    A significant advance in the engineering of electric machinery has been the introduction of electronic controls that enable AC motors to run at variable speeds by adjusting the frequency of the current fed into them. DC motors have also been made to run more efficiently this way.

                                                  Communications and Control

    Engineers work on control systems ranging from the everyday, passenger-actuated, such as those that run a lift, to the exotic, such as systems for keeping space craft on course. Control systems are used extensively in aircraft and ships, in military fire-control systems, in power transmission and distribution, in automated manufacturing, and in robotics.

    International Words and Phrases

    2.Translate into Russian the following international words and phrases. Explain

        their   construction

        Implantation, robotics, complex, thermodynamics, exotic, operate, micromanipulator,

        telecommunications, distributing, control system, vacuum tubes,  proportionately,

        to generate forms, mechanisms, silicon materials, electronics revolution, optimizing,

        operation, resistors, information, to integrate, television.

     

    3.Answer the questions  

       1. What is the electrical and electronics engineering concerned with?

       2. How many types is electrical engineering divided in?

       3. What do electronic engineers design?

       4. What had happened with circuits after the electronics revolution?

       5. What kind of control systems do engineers work on?

       6. What are two current trends in computing engineering?

       7. Can you name any typical example of modern mechanical engineering?

       8. How does safety engineering influence on manufacturing and works in different

          spheres of production?

    4.Match the types of engineering with their meanings

       1.Electronic engineering deals           a) the prevention of the accidents, developing

          with...                                                   methods and procedures to safeguard workers

                                                                        in hazardous occupations. They assist in

                                                                        designing machinery, factories, ships and

                                                                        roads, suggesting alterations and improvements

       2.Computer engineering involves      b) the field of design, test, build, and operate

          engineers in ...                                      machinery of all types; they work on a variety of

                                                                       manufactured goods and certain kinds of

                                                                       structures.

       3. Mechanical engineering is              c) design and manufacture of memory systems, of

          connected with...                                 central processing units, and of peripheral  

                                                                      devices.

                                                                      Engineers try place greater and greater numbers

                                                                      of circuit elements onto smaller and smaller chips

                                                                      and increase the speed of computer operations.

       4. Safety engineering has as its         d) the research, design, integration, and applications

           object ...                                             of circuits and devices used in transmission and

                                                                      and processing of information.

     

    5.Use task 3 as a plan and retell the text “Electrical and Electronics Engineering”

     

    Unit 14

    Времена английского глагола

    Таблица временных форм глагола

     Tense

    Время

    Indefinite (Simple) Простое

    Continuous Длительное

    Perfect Завершенное

    Present

    Настоящее

    I write

    Я пишу (вообще, обычно)

    I am writing

    Я пишу (сейчас)

    I have written

    Я (уже) написал

    Past

    Прошедшее

    I wrote

    Я (на) писал (вчера)

    I was writing

    Я писал (в тот момент)

    I had written

    Я написал (уже к тому моменту)

    Future

    Будущее

    I shall/will write

    Я напишу, буду писать (завтра)

    I shall/will be writing

    Я буду писать (в тот момент)

    I shall/will have written

    Я напишу (уже к тому моменту)

    1.Put the appropriative words from the list

       1. ... the plant was producing new machines.                        a) in recent years

       2. He had worked at this assembly station ...                        b) since then

       3. ... motor transport has become a serious                           c) during October

          competitor to the railway one.

       4.Students will have five exams...                                         d) by last month

       5.... safety engineering has become very                               e) now

          popular.

       6.Computer engineering is ... the most                                   f) in two days

          rapidly growing field.

       

    2.Read the text opening the brackets

    Michael Faraday

          Michael Faraday, English experimental physicist, … (be born) in 1791 in a poor family. The boy … (begin) to work as an apprentice at a bookbinder’s shop at an early age. One day a man … (enter) the shop and … (find) the boy studying an article on electricity. The man … (be) surprised to see a boy so interested in such a difficult subject and … (give) him four tickets for the lectures at the Royal Institutions.

           The boy … (go) to the lectures and … (make) notes of what he … (hear). At the end of the lecture he … (come) to Sir Humphrey Davy, the greater English scientist, and … (show) him his notes. Davy … (be) surprised. Later he … (make) Faraday his assistant and … (help) him in his education.

           Faraday … (have) many important discoveries. Among his works are the concept of the magnetic field and the magnetic “lines of force”, production of new kinds of optical glass, and research on electrolysis.

            Faraday … (produce) the first mechanical motion by means of a permanent magnet and an electric current. This is the principle upon which the modern electric motor is based.

            Faraday … (be) very modest and he … (love) his work more than honors. He … (refuse) to become President of the Royal Society and also … (refuse) to be knighted.

    Правильные и неправильные глаголы.

    По способу образования прошедшего времени все глаголы в английском языке можно разделить на две группы: правильные и неправильные. У правильных глаголов вторая и третья формы (Past Indefinite Tense и Past Participle — простое прошедшее время и причастие прошедшего времени) совпадают между собой и образуются путем прибавления к основе глагола окончания -ed (-d):

    to ask — asked, to change — changed, to receive — received, to work— worked

    Неправильные глаголы образуют вторую и третью формы различными способами, без четких правил. Это наиболее часто употребляемые глаголы.

    1.Write the Past Simple form of these verbs

       1. be (am /is)         ..........................                   11. lose          ...............................

       2. break                 ..........................                   12. make        ..............................

       3. come                  .........................                   13. meet         ..............................

       4. do                      .........................                    14. pay           ..............................

       5. drink                 .........................                     15. run           ..............................

       6. drive                 ..........................                    16. see           ..............................

       7. eat                    ..........................                     17. sell           .............................

       8. get                    ..........................                     18. sit             ............................

       9. give                 ..........................                      19. take          .............................

       10. go                  ..........................                      20. cut            .............................

    2.Open the brackets and put the verbs in the right form

        1. An operator ... (not use) the machines’ safety guards.

        2. On 3 January 1999 the team ... (do) its trip to Mars, they ... (use) imperial

           measurements and the other metrics.

        3.The employee ... (go) home after the accident but he ... (come) back to work

           on 10 June.

       4. A typical printed circuit board … (have) dozen individual components.

       5.The electrical equipment … (control) the starting of the engine.

       6. Safety engineering … (be) the most rapidly growing field.

       7.Tupolev’s TU-144 supersonic jet liner … (begin) its commercial passenger flights

           in 1977.

       8. Ergonomics … (continue) its work in solving such problems as safety of nuclear

           reactors, operators’ errors and malfunctioning equipment.

       9. She … (work) with this experiment next year.

       10. At present he ... (work) on improving of this mechanism.

    3.Find the past forms of these verbs in the puzzle. Read across, down and diagonally

         go                come                 mean                 say                      rise

         can              find                   speak                  write                   think

         sell               have                 put                     forget                  do

         leave            ring                  cut                      take                     tell

    H

    W

    D

    W

    R

    O

    T

    E

    E

    A

    F

    E

    I

    X

    T

    H

    S

    D

    D

    O

    O

    N

    D

    T

    O

    L

    D

    C

    U

    T

    R

    T

    R

    U

    O

    X

    M

    N

    X

    X

    G

    O

    G

    S

    K

    E

    D

    C

    N

    C

    O

    H

    A

    S

    A

    X

    A

    L

    E

    F

    T

    I

    O

    N

    R

    M

    X

    X

    U

    X

    D

    L

    T

    X

    E

    S

    P

    O

    K

    E

    D

    Unit 15

    Review of Tenses 1

    1.Translate the sentences from English into Russian:

        1)Who’s been talking over the phone for so long?

    2)Have you ever been to the Arab Emirates?

    3)What’s Jack doing here? – He’s looking for Ann.

    4)Did you meet Nick at the disco yesterday?

         5)He told me everything only after he had learnt all the information.

         6)Helen doesn’t love him any more, she’s got a new boyfriend.

         7)Will you help me tidy the room?

         8)We were watching TV when he came in and started shouting at Jane.

    9)I’m happy! I’ve found a good job, met a nice girl, rented a good flat, won 1000$ in a lottery.

    10)What’s the news? – Rita is getting married.

    11)How long have you been studying law?

    12)come to me  in 20 minutes, I’ll be making a cake.

    13)I’m sure, Sarah will pass all the exams.

    14)They don’t live here any more. They live in Vegas, as far as I remember.

    15)Who knows anything about Kate? – She left for LA a week ago.

    2.Say the negative:    

       don’t; doesn’t; aren’t; isn’t; haven’t; hasn’t; won’t; hadn’t; weren’t; didn’t

    1)We attend a gymnasium.

    2)I’ve done my homework.

    3)Nelly is writing now.

    4)Alice lives in London.

    5)He’s lost his key.

    6)Dad will come home in 2 hours.

    7)My friends were at night club yesterday.

    8)She’ll be watching her favourite soap opera when I come home.

    9)The girls bought a nice present for Irene.

                10) I speak English.

        3. Match the questions to the answers.

          1) Do you like rock music?                  a) I don’t read much.

     2) How long have you been                 b) I was born on the first of November.

    living here?

     3) Where do you work?                         c) Yes, I have. I saw a lion in the Zoo

                                                                       last spring.

     4) Have you travelled to Europe?         d) Perhaps, I’ll go to a sports club.

     5) Where does your son study?             e) I work in a travelling agency.

     6) Do you read much?                           f) I haven’t thought of it yet, I’ll    

                                                                       probably visit my sister in Rio.

    7) When is your birthday?                     g) I work on my computer, swim in my

                                                                       swimming pool.

    8) Did you often get bad marks             h) I’ve been living here for 6 years.

        when you were a schoolboy?  

    9) What will you do tomorrow?             i) I’ve got a son, he is 13.

    10) Are you happy?                                j) I like all kind of music.

    11) Have you got children?                    k) He attends a boarding school.

    12) What do you do in your spare          l) Sure, I’ve been to Paris.

          time?

    13) Have you ever seen a lion?              m) I think so.

    14) How will you spend your                 n) Well, I had never got bad marks, I was                                                                                    

         summer vacations?                                 a top student in my class.

                                                                     

               

    Review of Tenses 2

    1.Translate the sentences from English into Russian:

         1)I’ll be missing you much, you’re the best girl I’ve ever met.

    2)I’m reading now. I like reading science fiction.

    3)Where’s Tom? – He’s playing tennis on the tennis court.

    4)They’ll be sleeping.

    5)Harry had been running for an hour when he saw the lights in the dark.

    6)I haven’t decided yet what to do after college.

    7)The builders will have finished the construction of the supermarket by next June.

    8)I saw her yesterday morning, she walked in the park talking to a tall guy.

    9)First she wanted to leave for Paris, but after she had talked to Patric, she decided to stay.

    10)Have you ever eaten Chinese food? – Yes, I have. It was in a Chinese  

          restaurant in Detroit last month.

    11)Were you happy with Barbara? – I was really happy with her until her  

          mother moved to our cottage a month ago.

    12)I’m going to visit my granny. She’s been sick for 3 days already.

    13)When we returned home, mum had already made pizza and was decorating

         The table.

    14)My sister studies French, she wants to be a clothes designer.

    15)We’ll probably stay home because it’s raining outside.

    2.Say the negative:    

       don’t; doesn’t; aren’t; isn’t; haven’t; hasn’t; won’t; hadn’t; weren’t; didn’t

    1) He loves me.

    2) Lily had cooked soup before mum came home.

    3) We are playing basketball now.

    4) Fiona went to the library an hour ago.

    5) They study computing.

    6) I had a hamster when I was a child.

    7) Dad will go to New York soon.

    8) I like your style.

                 9) Mary is talking in the hall.

                10) They’ve spent 2 days in Sochi.

    3. Match the questions to the answers.

    1) Do you like rock music?                  a) I don’t read much.

    2) How long have you been                 b) I was born on the first of November.

    living here?

    3) Where do you work?                         c) Yes, I have. I saw a lion in the Zoo

                                                                      last spring.

    4) Have you travelled to Europe?         d) Perhaps, I’ll go to a sports club.

    5) Where does your son study?             e) I work in a travelling agency.

    6) Do you read much?                           f) I haven’t thought of it yet, I’ll    

                                                                      probably visit my sister in Rio.

    7) When is your birthday?                     g) I work on my computer, swim in my

                                                                       swimming pool.

    8) Did you often get bad marks             h) I’ve been living here for 6 years.

        when you were a schoolboy?  

    9) What will you do tomorrow?             i) I’ve got a son, he is 13.

    10) Are you happy?                                j) I like all kind of music.

    11) Have you got children?                    k) He attends a boarding school.

    12) What do you do in your spare          l) Sure, I’ve been to Paris.

          time?

    13) Have you ever seen a lion?              m) I think so.

    14) How will you spend your                 n) Well, I had never got bad marks, I was                                                                                    

         summer vacations?                                 a top student in my class.

                                                                     

    Unit 16

    Modal Verbs and Their Equivalents

    значение

    Present

    Past

    Future

    can

    could

    shall/will be able to

    Физическая или умственная способность

    I can skate. - Я умею кататься на коньках.

    I could skate.- Я мог кататься на коньках.

    I’ll be able to skate there.- Я смогу там кататься на коньках.

    may

    was/were allowed

    shall/will be allowed

    Разрешение совершить действие

    You may go home.- Вы можете идти домой.

    I was allowed to go home.- Я могла идти домой. (Мне разрешили…)

    You will be allowed to go home.- Вы сможете идти домой. (Вам разрешат…)

    must

    -

    -

    Моральный долг, долженствование

    I must do it.- Я должен это сделать.

    have to/has to

    had to

    shall/will have to

    I have to help him.- Я вынужден помочь ему.

    I had to go there.-Я был вынужден./ Мне пришлось пойти туда.

    You will have to go there.- Вам нужно будет./Придется пойти туда.

    1.Translate the sentences, explain the usage of the certain modal verbs

       1. The green wire should be connected to terminal 4.

       2. You mustn’t turn the machine when the red warning light is on.

       3. This lever can be up or down.

       4. We can recycle old products to make new ones.

       5. The red switch has to be on.

       6. A rheostat is a resistor whose resistance value may be varied.

       7. That morning he had to leave his car at home.

       8. You can’t ride a motorbike with no helmet.

       9. Metals are important in industry because they can be easily deformed into useful

           shapes.

       

    2.Choose the right modal verb

        1.For each new product the producing equipment ... reprogrammed and

         changed over.

              a) must be                       c) can be

              b) may be                       d) should be

       2.The applications of robots ... divided into three categories.

              a) must be                       c) may be

              b) had be                        d) should be

       3.The petrol engine ... develop much power at low speeds

              a) can not                        c) must not

              b) ought not to                d) may not

       4.Despite its diversity, electrical engineering ... divided into four main branches.

              a) must be                        c) can be

              b) should be                     d) may be

       5.He ... finish the work because of the lack of money.

              a) had not                         c) must not

              b) could not                     d) must be

       6.Computers ... input, calculate, compare, and output data as information.

              a) have to                         c) must

              b) can                               d) may

       7.Engineers ... know how materials respond to external forces, such as tension,

          compression, torsion, bending, and shear.

               a) must                            c) can

               b) may                             d) may be

       8.Strength is the force per unit area (stress) that a material ... support without

          falling.

               a) may                              c) can

               b) must                             d) has to

       9.You ... to wear a hard hat at this part of the workshop.

               a) must                             c) may

               b) have                             d) can

       10.Before you go on the factory tour you ...to put on these special clothes and  

            safety boots.

               a) must                             c) may

               b) have                             d) can

    3.Put the verbs into Past Simple. Use the modal verbs and their equivalents

       1. He must work hard to finish his experiment.

       2. I can devote myself to scientific work.

       3.You may repeat this experiment.

       4.He must illustrate this law by several experiments.

       5.She can study automation in the college.

       6.They may carry out these experiments at the laboratory.

     

    4.Put the verbs into Future Simple. Use the modal verbs and their equivalents

       1.He must check the temperature three times a day.

       2.In this figure you can see a diagram of temperature changes.

       3.He may use a barometer to measure the atmospheric pressure.

       4.You may use this method in your research.

       5.She can do the work in time.

       6.They must solve a number of scientific problems.

    5. Remember the meaning of following verbs and make up their derivative words, for example: to calculate — calculating, calculator, calculation.

    To compute, to invent, to know, to multiply, to divide, to depend, to solve, to provide, to process, to code, to use, to manipulate, to assemble, to connect, to inform, to instruct, to discover, to operate.

    Unit 17

    The First Calculating Device

    Vocabulary

    calculating  device— вычислительное устройство

    multiple  — кратный

    abacus — счеты

    slide rule — логарифмическая линейка

    logarithm table — логарифмическая таблица

    calculus— исчисление; математический анализ

    general-purpose — общего назначения, универсальный

    to cut out the human being altogether — полностью исключить человека

    to manipulate— обрабатывать, преобразовывать; управлять

    data processing— обработка данных (информации)

    tabulate the census — занести данные по переписи (населения) в таблицу

    means of coding — средства кодирования (шифровки)

    to punch the holes— пробивать отверстия

    punched card— перфокарта

    to perform— выполнять, производить

    unit of data— единица информации

    keyboard terminals — терминал (вывод) с клавишным управлением

        proliferation — быстрое увеличение

    1. Read the text and translate it

    Let us take a look at the history of computers that we know today. The very first calculating device used was the ten fingers of a man's hands. This, in fact, is why today we still count in tens and multiples of tens.

    Then the abacus was invented. People went on using some form of abacus well into the 16th century, and it is still being used in some parts of the world because it can be understood without knowing how to read. During the 17th and I8lh centuries many people tried to find easy ways of calculating. J.Napier, a Scotsman, invented a mechanical way of multiplying and dividing, which is now the modern slide rale works. Henry Briggs used Napier's ideas to produce logarithm tables which all mathematicians use today. Calculus, another branch of mathematics, was independently invented by Sir Isaac Newton, an Englishman, and Leibnitz, a German mathematician. The first real calculating machine appeared in 1820 as the result of several people's experiments.

    In 1830 Charles Babbage, a gifted English mathematician, proposed to build a general-purpose problem-solving machine that he called "the analytical engine". This machine, which Babbage showed at the Paris Exhibition in 1855, was an attempt to cut out the human being altogether, except for providing the machine with the necessary facts about the problem to be solved. He never finished this work, but many of his ideas were the basis for building today's computers. By the early part of the twentieth century electromechanical machines had been developed and were used for business data processing. Dr. Herman Hollerith, a young statistician from the US Census Bureau successfully tabulated the 1890 census. Hollerith invented a means of coding the data by punching holes into cards. He built one machine to punch the holes and others — to tabulate the collected data. Later Hollerith left the Census Bureau and established his own tabulating machine company. Through a series of merges the company eventually became the IBM Corporation. Until the middle of the twentieth century machines designed to manipulate punched card data were widely used for business data processing. These early electromechanical data processors were called unit record machines because each punched card contained a unit of data. In the mid—1940s electronic computers were developed to perform calculations for military and scientific purposes. By the end of the 1960s commercial models of these computers were widely used for both scientific computation and business data processing. Initially these computers accepted their input data from punched cards. By the late 1970s punched cards had been almost universally replaced by keyboard terminals. Since that time advances in science have led to the proliferation of computers throughout our society, and the past is but the prologue that gives us a glimpse of the nature.

    2. Retell the text giving the answers to the following questions

    1. What was the very first calculating device?

    2. What is the abacus?

    3. What is the modern slide rule?

    4. Who gave the ideas for producing logarithm tables?

    5. How did Newton and Leibnitz contribute to the problem of calculation?

    6. When did the first calculating machine appear?

    7. What was the main idea of Ch. Babbage's machine?

    8. How did electromechanical machines appear and what were they used for?

    9. What means of coding the data did Hollerith devise?

    10. How  were those electromechanical machines called and why?

    11. What kind of computers appeared later?

    12. What new had the computers of 1970s?

    3. Give the English translation for the following words and phrases

    Вычислительное устройство; легкий способ вычисления; поэтому (вот почему); кратное десяти; изобрести механический способ умножения и деления; логарифмическая линейка; составить таблицы логарифмов; математический анализ; изобрести независимо (друг от друга); в результате; полностью исключить человека; кроме (за исключением); обработка деловой информации; средство кодирования информации; перфокарты; пробивать отверстия; оформить собранные данные в таблицу; работать с данными на перфокарте; устройство, записывающее информацию блоками; единица информации; выполнять вычисления; для научных целей; клавишный терминал.

    Unit 18

    Computers in Our Life

    Vocabulary

    impact-влияние                                                            achievement-достижение

    appliance-прибор, приспособление                            significant-значительный

    entertainment device-развлекательное устройство    remote-отдалённый

    bulletin board-доска объявлений                                beneficial-выгодный, полезный

    computer literacy-компьютерная грамотность          opportunity-возможность

    application-применение использование                     restate-пересмотреть

    problem-solving device-устройство, обеспечивающее

    tertiary level-третья ступень(обучение в институте, университете)

    1.Read the text and translate it

         Computers have had a great impact on modern society. Today computers are constantly becoming a part of our everyday life. They are used in everything from the home PC or laptop to appliances such as microwaves, mobile phones, entertainment devices (such as DVD-players) and even our cars. Computers have had a great impact not only on our everyday life, but also on education and the workplace. It’s almost impossible to get through one day without having some from of interaction with computers.

          The Internet has also had a huge impact on society. It provides information and services, as well as the ability to communicate to people all around the world in a variety of ways. These range from bulletin boards and chat rooms to voice conversations and video conferencing. It’s available to millions of people and those who don’t have the Internet at home  will often have access at work or school, or even at the local library.

            The use of computers for educational purposes has been highly beneficial for those involved. From a primary school level children are taught the basis of computer use, including the use of the Internet. At high school this continues as children become more and more proficient in using the computer. In the tertiary level though, computers really come into use, the reason is news, assignments, tests, lecture notes, etc. can be placed on the Internet. It’s extremely useful for students who live in remote areas and cannot travel to and from university or other tertiary institution every day.

            In general, computers are beneficial to the tasks they are applied to. Although computers can cause some problems, such as unemployment and computer viruses, they are far outweighed by the benefits computers provide.

            They have the conclusion that informed citizens of our information-dependent society should be computer-literate, that means we should be able to use computers as everyday problem-solving devices and to restate our attitude to computers in one person’s casual life. There’s a little doubt that computers and their applications are among the most significant technical achievements of the centuries. They bring with them both economic and social changes.    

    2. Say if the sentence is true or false

       1.Society is much influenced by computers at present time.

       2. You can find computers everywhere, even in your car.

       3. Computers can be operated by microwaves.

       4. DVD player is an entertainment device.

       5. The Internet is a source of information only.

       6. You can’t watch or hear people’s voices through the Internet.

       7. You can get access to the Internet at the local library.

       8. Children are taught the basis of computer use at a primary school level.

       9. Computers can be used in education at a distance.

       10. There are more advantages than disadvantages with computers.

       11. It isn’t necessary to the modern person to study computing.

       12. Computers cannot change our casual life.

       13. The biggest problem with the computer is poor eyesight.

    3. Answer the questions

       1.Have computers become an integral part of our life?

       2.What types of appliances can computers be used in?

       3.What kinds of services does the Internet provide?

       4.Where can people get access to the Internet?

       5.How are children taught to use the computer?

       6.What are the disadvantages of computer?

       7.What’s the role of computers in our everyday life?

       8.What does “a computer-literate person” mean?

       9.Can you give some examples of computer’s using in everyday life?

    4. Make up sentences with the following words and phrases

       an information-dependent society;                      to influence the quality of life;

       to have an opportunity;                                       an everyday problem-solving device;

       the most significant technical achievements

    5. Do the crossword. Find the following words:   1.доступ

                                                                                       2.служба

    O

    A

    P

    P

    L

    I

    A

    N

    C

    E

     P

    C

    L

    F

    I

    M

    P

    A

    C

    T

    R

    C

    V

    I

    R

    U

    S

    E

    S

    D

    O

    E

    B

    H

    N

    B

    E

    S

    R

    D

    V

    S

    C

    O

    M

    P

    U

    T

    E

    R

    I

    S

    E

    R

    V

    I

    C

    E

    M

    A

    D

    E

    D

    U

    C

    A

    T

    I

    O

    N

    E

    I

    N

    T

    E

    R

    N

    E

    T

    A

    O

    S

    F

    D

    E

    V

    I

    C

    E

    S

    P

    T

    E

    C

    H

    N

    I

    C

    A

    L

          3.компьютер

          4.устройство

          5.влияние

          6.интернет

          7.образование

          8.технический

          9.отдаленный

          10.вирусы

          11.прибор

          12.предоставлять

    Unit 19

    Conversion

    Конверсия

    В отличие от русского языка в английском языке одно и то же слово может выступать в предложении в качестве разных частей речи. Так, в данных ниже предложениях слово water является существительным (1), глаголом (2), играет роль прилагательного (определения) (3), является частью сложного слова (4).

                    1.Water is necessary for life.- Вода необходима для жизни.

                    2.Water the flower-bed, please.-Полей (те), пожалуйста, клумбу.

                    3.Water mills served a source of energy.-Водяные мельницы служили  

                        источником энергии.

                    4.water-supply system-система водоснабжения

                       water-proof watch-водонепроницаемые часы

    Значение подобных слов и их перевод на русский язык зависят от того, каким членом предложения они являются. Они могут быть подлежащим, сказуемым (или его частью), определением, обстоятельством. Функцию слова помогает определить твердый порядок слов в английском предложении и контекст.

    1.Look up the meaning of this words in a dictionary, if necessary. How are they

       translated in the sentences below? Mind the word order.

    1. place, iron, lift, house, light, heat, use, form, change, wire

         1.The conductor wires are placed high up.

         2.Electromagnets lift iron weights.

         3.The plastic box houses the conducting and the insulating elements of the apparatus.

         4.The house is lighted and heated by solar energy.

         5.The light went out. Light the candle, please.

         6.After the metal was heated it changed its color to a red heat.

         7.Numerous changes are taking place in the uses of atomic energy.

         8.Electric power is used universally.

         9.The newly made invention has a great number of uses.

        10.The wire and the source form circuit.

    1. balance, amount, water, fuel, control, measure, cause, increase

    1.The fuel-and-energy balance is important for industry.

    2.Conductivity increases with heating.

    3.The machine should be re-fuelled.

    4.The amount of power used in the world in a year amounts to 12 000 million tones of equivalent fuel.

    5.Water barriers are crossed by submarine cables.

    6.The instrument is foot-controlled by a pedal.

    7.Force and motion go together; one is a cause, the other, a result.

    8.An electromotive force causes the electrons to move.

    9.Control of the apparatus is placed on the panel.

    10.The volt is a measure of electromotive force.

    2.Read the text and find in it the answers to the question that follows it

    High- Frequency Current

            Alternating current with frequency of 50 c/s is widely used in industry. Therefore this frequency is called an industrial frequency and the current, an industrial frequency current.

    During sound transmission, current flowing in telephone wires changes with the frequency of sound oscillations, which ranges from 50 to 10 000 c/s. The currents of such frequencies are called audio- or low-frequency currents.

            Radio transmission is based on the use of alternating currents with frequencies of hundreds, thousands, millions and even tens of million cycles per second. These currents called high-frequency currents are produced by means of an oscillatory circuit consisting of a coil and a capacitor. Moving along the turns now in one direction now in another, the electric charges oscillate in an oscillatory circuit.

    By what means are high-frequency currents obtained?

    Unit 20

    Functions of the  Infinitive

    Функции инфинитива

    Функции

    Перевод

    1. подлежащее

     To read English books is useful.

    2. дополнение

     I like to read English books in the original.

    3. часть составного сказуемого

     Our aim is to master the English language.

    4.определение

     Here is the book to be read as soon as   possible.

    5.обстоятельство цели

     He worked hard to master the English language.

    Читать английские книги полезно.

    Я люблю читать английские книги в

    подлиннике.

    Наша цель - овладеть английским языком.

    Вот книга, которую нужно прочитать как можно быстрее.

    Он усердно занимался для того, чтобы овладеть английским языком.

    1.Translate the sentences into Russian

       1.Newton is considered to be one of the greatest English scientists.

       2.Popov is known to be the inventor of radio in Russia.

       3.Lomonosov considered chemistry to be his “main profession”.

       4.The air is known to be the mixture of gases.

       5.The year 1895 is considered to be the date of the invention of the radio.

       6.Surgut is known to be the town of oil and gas.

       7.The machine tool is directed to accomplish the machining of the part.

       8.More than one processing step is often required to complete a complicated part.

       9.In designing roads the safety engineer seeks to avoid different hazards.

       10.Engineers try to place greater and greater numbers of circuit elements onto smaller

           and smaller chips.

    2.Determine the function of the infinitive and translate the sentences into Russian

       1.In 1810 Faraday began to attend lectures on natural philosophy.

       2.To study the nature of light and color Newton carried out many experiments with

          a prism.

       3.The lecture to be delivered by a well-known scientist is devoted to the problems of

           ecology.

       4.Edison found an electric company to supply electricity to New York and other places.

       5.The experiment to be made by these scientists will give us important information.

       6.The procedure to be followed is described below.

       7.They made some experiments to prove their theory.

       8.At that time Newton began to think about construction of an astronomical telescope.

       9.Circuits are used to generate waveforms useful for synchronization and timing.

       10.This assembly station hasn’t enough money to open the line for assembling new cars.

       11.To carry out this experiment will take you a lot of time.

       12.He forgot to register the results of the experiment.

    3.Read the text and find in it the answers to the questions that follow it.

      Rewrite the text and underline the infinitives, name their functions

    Wattmeter

        A wattmeter is used to measure the value of a power. It is connected to the circuit directly. A wattmeter consists of coils: two fixed coils and a coil which moves in the magnetic field produced by the fixed coils. Wire used for the coils must have a high resistance; the fixed coils are in series with the load, the moving coil is connected across the line series with a resistance. When a wattmeter is used, the readings on its scale show the value of power being used.

    1.What is the wattmeter used for?

    2.What does it consist of?

    3.In what way are the elements connected?

    4.What do the readings on the scale show?

    4.Read the text and find in it the answers to the questions that follow it.

      Rewrite the text and underline the infinitives, name their functions

    Rheostat

       A rheostat is a resistor whose resistance value may be varied. Thus, a rheostat is a variable resistance.

       It is used to charge the resistance of circuits, and in this way to vary the value of current.

       A rheostat consists of a coil and a switch. Take into consideration that wire used for the coil must have a very high resistance. When a rheostat is used its terminals are connected in series with the load. The switch is used to change the length of the wire through which the measured current passes. The resistance may be changed to any value from zero to maximum.

       The longer the rheostat wire used in the circuit, the greater is the resistance.

    1.What type of resistor is a rheostat?

    2.What is a rheostat used for?

    3.In what way does a rheostat vary the value of current?

    4.What elements does a rheostat consist of?

    5.In what way are the terminals connected with the load?

    6.What is the function of the switch?

         

    Unit 21

    Страдательный залог (Passive Voice)

    Формы страдательного залога английских глаголов образуются с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени, лице и числе и причастия II (Participle II) смыслового глагола:

    Present Indefinite

    The letter is written

    Past Indefinite

    The letter was written

    Future Indefinite

    The letter will be written

    Present Continuous

    The letter is being written

    Past Continuous

    The letter was being written

    Future Continuous

    The letter will be being written

    Present Perfect

    The letter has been written

    Past Perfect

    The letter had been written

    Future Perfect

    The letter will have been written

    Глагол-сказуемое в страдательном залоге показывает, что подлежащее предложения является объектом действия со стороны другого лица или предмета.

    1.Translate into English. Determine the Tense and Voice of the verb

       1.This problem was discussed last week.

       2.Lomonosov is often called the founder of Russian science.

       3.Manufacturing is one of the most important application area for automation technology

       4.The reprogramming of the equipment is done at a computer terminal.

       5.The automation technology in manufacturing and assembly is widely used in car

          and other consumer product industries.  

       6.An automated production line consists of a series of workstations.

       7.The program is coded in computer memory for each different product style and the  

           machine-tool is controlled by the computer program.

       8.Many applications of numerical control have been developed since its initial use to

          control machine tools.

    2. Here are some facts about famous inventions. Fill in the blanks with the forms of

        the verbs in Active or Passive Voices that suit

       1.Many American inventors ................... to find ways to ease the process of washing.

          By 1873, some 2 000 patents .......................for washing machines. Most of these

          machines .................... clumsy devices with washer blades that had to be turned by

          hand. (were / had been issued / tried)

       2.In the early1900s, electric machines ............... . Advertisements proclaimed the  

          wonders of these machines. But it was not until about 1937 that manufactures ............

          fully automatic machines. Within a few years, the old washboard ............... for ever.

          (came up with /was washed up / appeared)  

       3.In 1830, Barthelme Thimonnier ................ the first sewing machine. The machine

          ................ of wood, but it ................ . Later Thimonnier ................ his machine and in

          1845 he .............. it with patents both in England and the United States. (designed and

          made / was made ... worked / improved / protected)

       4.Between 1832 and 1834 the American Walter Hunt ............... a more advanced sewing

          machine than that, which ............... by Thimonnier. (had been invented / had designed

          and made)

       5.In the middle of the 19th century, although it ............, the sewing machine .............very

          many people. (didn’t interest / had been tested)

       6.The American Isaac Merritt Singer ............. some improvements that ............ by Howe

           and ................. it. (had been invented / made / patented)

       7.Later the automatic feeding of the cloth that ............ by the American Allen  B.Wilson

          ............... the sewing machine greatly. (improved / had been introduced)

       8.In 1851 another American William O.Grover ............... a machine which ................ the

          double chain stitch. (made / invented)

    3.Put the verbs in Active or Passive Voice

       1. About 200 years ago, there ... (not be) many factories or machines.

       2. People ... (use) a metal which ... (call) steel to make strong chassis.

       3. Some assembly operations … (perform) manually.

       4. Each station … (design) to perform a specific processing operation.

       5.Many applications of numerical control … (develop) since its initial use to control  

          machine tools.

       6. His work ... (finish) already.

       7.The experiment ... (carry out) from ten till twelve o’clock.

       8 The machine ... (test) now.

       9.Watt ... (continue) his researches and ... (patent) several important inventions.

    4.Rewrite the sentences into one using the rule of formation of Passive Voice, Past  

      Perfect       

          Great inventions have been made by Russian scientists and engineers.

         What were these inventions? What other inventions were made along the same line

         within that period of time?

    1.In 1779 the Russian inventor Ivan Kulibin made a lamp that produced a very bright light. In 1783 the Swiss physics Argand added the glass chimney to the lamp. (... that ...)

    In 1783 the Swiss physics Argand added the glass chimney to the lamp that had been invented by Ivan Kulibin.

    2.On November 23, 1802, Russian scientist V.Petrov discovered the electric arc. His discovery remained unknown in the West. In 1811 Humphry Davy, the British scientist, discovered the arc again and called it the volcanic arc. (By the time...)

    ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 

    3.A young Russian engineer, Alexander Lodygin made the first successful light bulb in 1873. In 1877 Thomas Edison learnt about the lamp, improved and later patented it. (... which ...)

    ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 

    4.In 1875 Mendeleyev put forward the idea of building a high-altitude balloon. Shortly afterwards, in 1886, Tsiolkovsky designed an all metal dirigible. (... modified ... , the idea of which ...)

    ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 

    5.In 1878 Mozhaisky designed the first aero plane. The aircraft was tested on August 1, 1882. It was only in 1903 that two Americans Orville and Wilbur Wright built an aero plane like Mozhaisky’s. (By the time ...)

    ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 

    6.In 1814 George Stephenson invented the steam locomotive. In 1829 in Russia the Cherepanovs, father and son, invented and built a steam locomotive better than George Stephenson’s. (... improved ... which ...)

    ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 

    Unit 22

    Сложное дополнение (Complex object)

    Сложное дополнение — это сочетание существительного или местоимения в объектном падеже (напр. me, him, us, them) с инфинитивом или причастием I. Существует в трех основных вариантах:

    1. С инфинитивом без частицы to или с причастием 1 после глаголов восприятия

    see               I saw him drive the car. I saw them working in the lab.

    watch                We watched the plane land. We watched the children playing in the

                        yard.

    notice               Nobody noticed him go out. He didn't notice that happen.

    feel               She felt somebody touch her hand. They didn't feel the train start.

    hear               I didn't hear you come into the room. I heard her playing piano.

    В первом случае (вышеперечисленные глаголы с инфинитивом без частицы to) подчеркивается факт действия, во втором (эти же глаголы с причастием I) — процесс действия.

    I saw him enter the house. — Я видел, как он вошел в дом.

    I saw him entering the house. — Я видел, как он входил в дом.

    2. С инфинитивом без частицы to после глаголов

    to let             Don't let them play in the street.

    to make         Don't make me laugh.

    3. С инфинитивом с частицей to после глаголов

    to want         I want you to find me a place in the first row.

    to expect        I expect you to come in time.

    to believe        I believe her to be a very good teacher.

    to know        I know him to be a good student.

    to advise        I advise you to enter the institute.

    to consider        The climate in England is considered to be mild.

    to order        He is ordered not to be late.

    to allow        They allow to use dictionaries at the exam.

    to like                I would like you to finish your work,

    to find                I find your story to be very interesting.

    1.Put the verbs in the brackets in the right form and translate them

    1.They advised (wear) a hard hat.

    2. I expected them (not use) mobile phones there.

    3. The appearance of robots allowed (increase) the development of factories.

    4. If you want us (make) the work quickly you should let us (start) at once.

    5. We expect our invention (win) at the exhibition.

    6. I’d like (remember) you that it’s necessary to follow the safety rules in this shop of the

       enterprise.

    7. The chief engineer doesn’t let us (visit) some parts of the plant without special uniform.

    8. When installing heavy parts to choose a position that allows you (handle) it with one or

        fewer units.

    9. He wants me (perform) this work in a short time.

    10. The term robot is considered (derive) from the Czech word “robota”.

    11. I believe you (become) a good specialist.

    12. They found the equipment (be) highly productive.

    13. Our instructor makes us (learn) all the safety rules.

    14. The worker noticed the new device (appear) in the room.

    2.Write one question to each of the sentences. Remember the different types of

        questions

    Unit 23

    Automation

    Vocabulary

    automation-автоматизация                                   previously-ранее

    sequence-последовательность                             assembly plant-сборочный завод

    non-manufacturing- непроизводственный          device-устройство, прибор

    resemble-  походить                                             efficiency-эффективность

    flyball governor-центробежный регулятор        steam engine-паровоз

    household thermostat-бытовой термостат          facilitate-способствовать

    punched-перфорированный                                aid-помощь

    dimension-измерение, размеры

    1. Read the text and translate it

      Automation is the system of manufacture performing certain tasks, previously done by people, by machines only. The sequences of operations are controlled automatically. The most familiar example of a highly automated system is an assembly plant for automobiles or other complex products.

      The term automation is also used to describe nonmanufacturing systems in which automatic devices can operate independently of human control. Such devices as automatic pilots, automatic telephone equipment and automated control systems are used to perform various operations much faster and better than could be done by people.

       Automated manufacturing had several steps in its development. Mechanization was the first step necessary in the development of automation. The simplification of work made it possible to design and build machines that resembled the motions of the worker. These specialized machines were motorized and they had better production efficiency.

       Industrial robots, originally designed only to perform simple tasks in environments dangerous to human workers, are now used to transfer, manipulate, and position both light and heavy work pieces performing all the functions of a transfer machine.

       In the 1920s the automobile industry for the first time used an integrated system of production. This method of production was adopted by most car manufacturers and became known as Detroit automation.

       The feedback principle is used in all automatic-control mechanisms when machines have ability to correct themselves. The feedback principle has been used for centuries. An outstanding early example is the flyball governor, invented in 1788 by James Watt to control the speed of the steam engine. The common household thermostat is another example of a feedback device.

       Using feedback devices, machines can start, stop, speed up, slow down, count, inspect, test, compare, and measure. These operations are commonly applied to a wide variety of production operations.

       Computers have greatly facilitated the use of feedback in manufacturing processes. Computers gave rise to the development of numerically controlled machines. The motions of these machines are controlled by punched paper of magnetic tapes. In numerically controlled machining centers machine tools can perform several different machining operations.

       More recently, the introduction of microprocessors and computers have made possible the development of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD and CAM) technologies. When using these systems a designer draws a part and indicates its dimensions with the help of a mouse, light pen, or other input device. After the drawing has been completed the computer automatically gives the instructions that direct a machining centre to machine the part.

       Another development using automation are the flexible manufacturing systems (FMS). A computer in FMS can be used to monitor and control the operation of the whole factory.

       Automation has also had an influence on the areas of the economy other than manufacturing. Small computers are used in systems called word processors, which are rapidly becoming a standard part of the modern office. They are used to edit texts, to type letters and so on.

          2.Answer the questions

    1. How is the term automation defined in the text?

    2. What is the most «familiar example» of automation given in the text?

    3. What was the first step in the development of automation?

    4. What were the first robots originally designed for?

    5. What was the first industry to adopt the new integrated system of production?

    6. What is the feedback principle?

    7. What do the abbreviations CAM and CAD stand for?

    8. What is FMS?

    9. What industries do use automation technologies?

    3.Find the following words and word combinations in the text

             1. автоматические устройства

             2. автоматизированное производство

             3. выполнять простые задачи

             4. как легкие, так и тяжелые детали

             5. интегрированная система производства

             6. принцип обратной связи

             7. механизм может разгоняться и тормозить

             8. компьютер автоматически посылает команды

             9. высокоавтоматизированная система

             10. непроизводственная система

       

           4. Match the phrases and their translation

                 1. automation technology               a) непродуктивное время

                 2. non-productive time                   b) сборочные машины

                 3. assembly machines                     c) технология автоматизации

                 4. fixed automation                         d) стационарная автоматизация

    Unit 24

    Automation in Industry

    Vocabulary

    automation-автоматизация                                   previously-ранее

    sequence-последовательность                             assembly plant-сборочный завод

    non-manufacturing- непроизводственный          device-устройство, прибор

    resemble-  походить                                             efficiency-эффективность

    flyball governor-центробежный регулятор        steam engine-паровоз

    household thermostat-бытовой термостат          facilitate-способствовать

    punched-перфорированный                                aid-помощь

    demencion-измерение, размеры

    1. Read the text and translate it

    Many industries are highly automated or use automation technology in some part of their operation. In communications and especially in the telephone industry dialing and transmission are all done automatically. Railways are also controlled by automatic signaling devices, which have sensors that detect carriages passing a particular point. In this way the movement and location of trains can be monitored.

    Not all industries require the same degree of automation. Sales, agriculture, and some service industries are difficult to automate, though agriculture industry may become more mechanized, especially in the processing and packaging of foods.

    The automation technology in manufacturing and assembly is widely used in car and other consumer product industries.

    Nevertheless, each industry has its own concept of automation that answers its particular production needs.

          2.Answer the questions

    1. How is the term automation defined in the text?

    2. What is the most «familiar example» of automation given in the text?

    3. What was the first step in the development of automaton?

    4. What were the first robots originally designed for?

    5. What was the first industry to adopt the new integrated system of production?

    6. What is feedback principle?

    7. What do the abbreviations CAM and CAD stand for?

    8. What is FMS?

    9. What industries use automation technologies?

    3.Find the following words and word combinations in the text

             1. автоматические устройства

             2. автоматизированное производство

             3. выполнять простые задачи

             4. как легкие, так и тяжелые детали

             5. интегрированная система производства

             6. принцип обратной связи

             7. механизм может разгоняться и тормозить

             8. компьютер автоматически посылает команды

             9. высокоавтоматизированная система

             10. непроизводственная система

       

           4. Match the phrases and their translation

                 1. automation technology               a) непродуктивное время

                 2. non-productive time                   b) сборочные машины

                 3. assembly machines                     c) технология автоматизации

                 4. fixed automation                         d) стационарная автоматизация

    Unit 25

    Mechanical Properties of Materials Used in  Industry

    Vocabulary

    ability-способность                                   absorb-поглощать

    amount-количество                                   application -применение

    brittle-хрупкий, ломкий                            stiffness-жесткость

    constituent- компонент                              crack-трещина

    toughness-прочность, стойкость              yield strength-прочность текучести

    definition-определение                              tensile strength-прочность на разрыв

    density-плотность                                     Young modulus-модуль Юнга

    ductility-ковкость, эластичность             stress-давление, напряжение

    strength-прочность                                   car body-кузов автомобиля

    failure-повреждение                                 rigid-жесткий

    creep resistance-устойчивость к ползучести  

    strain-нагрузка, напряжение, деформация

    1. Read the text and translate it

       Density (specific weight) is the amount of mass in a unit volume. It’s measured in kilograms per cubic meter. The density of water is 1000 kg/ m3 but most materials have a higher density and sink in water. Aluminum alloys, with typical densities around 2800 kg/ m3 are considerably less dense than steels, which have typical densities around 7800 kg/ m3. Density is important in any application where the material must not be heavy.

        Stiffness (rigidity) is a measure of the resistance to deformation such as stretching or bending. The Young modulus is a measure of the resistance to simple stretching or compression. It’s the ratio of the applied force per unit area (stress) to the fractional elastic deformation (strain). Stiffness is important when a rigid structure is to be made.

        Strength is the force per unit (stress) that a material can support without failing. The units are the same as those of stiffness, MN/ m2 , but in this case the deformation is irrevisible.The yield strength is the stress at which a material first deforms plastically. For a metal the yield strength may be less than the fracture strength, which is the stress at which it breaks. Many materials have a higher strength in compression than in tension.

        Ductility is the ability of a material to deform without breaking. One of the great advantages of metals is their ability to be formed into the shape that is needed, such as car body parts. Materials that are not ductile are brittle. Ductile materials can absorb energy by deformation but brittle materials can not.

        Toughness is the resistance of a material to breaking when there’s a crack in it. For a material of given toughness, the stress at which it will fail is inversely proportional to the square root of the size of the largest defect present. Toughness is different from strength: the toughest steels, for example, are different from the ones with highest tensile strength. Brittle materials have low toughness: glass can be broken along a chosen line by first scratching it with a diamond. Composites can be designed to have considerably greater toughness than their constituent materials. The example of a very tough composite is fiberglass that is very flexible and strong.

        Creep resistance is the resistance to a gradual permanent change of shape, and it becomes especially important at higher temperatures. A successful research has been made in materials for machine parts that operate at high temperatures and under high tensile forces witout gradually extending, for example the parts of plane engines.

    4. Translate into English the following

    1. Плотность измеряется в килограммах на кубический метр.

    2. Большинство материалов имеют более высокую плотность, чем вода и тонут в  

        воде.

    3. Плотность материала очень важна, особенно в авиации.

    4. Модуль Юнга — отношение приложенной силы к упругой деформации данного

        материала.

    5. Чем более металл жесткий, тем менее он деформируется под нагрузкой.

    6. Когда металл растягивают, он сначала течет, то есть пластически деформируется.

    7. Свинец, медь, алюминий и золото — самые ковкие металлы.

    8. Сопротивление ползучести является очень важным свойством материалов,

        которые используются в авиационных моторах.

    3.Answer the questions

    1. What is the density of a material?

    2. What are the units of density? Where low density is needed?

    3. What are the densities of water, aluminium and steel?

    4. A measure of what properties is stiffness? When stiffness is important?

    5. What is Young modulus?

    6. What is strength?

    7. What is yield strength? Why fracture strength is always greater than yield strength?

    8. What is ductility? Give the examples of ductile materials. Give the examples of

        brittle materials.

    8. What is toughness?

    9. What properties of steel are necessary for the manufacturing of: a) springs, b) car

        body parts, c) bolts and nuts, d) cutting tools?

    10. Where is aluminium mostly used because of its light weight?

    2.Find the following words and phrases

    1.количество массы в единице объема

    2.килограмм на кубический метр

    3.мера сопротивления деформации

    4.жесткая конструкция

    5.прочность на сжатие

    6.постепенное изменение формы

    7.повышение температуры

    8.высокие растягивающие усилия


    9.поглощать энергию путем деформации

    10.обратно пропорционально размеру дефекта

    11.способность материала деформироваться, не разрушаясь

    12.отношение приложенной силы на единицу площади к  частичной упругой

       деформации

     

    Unit 26

    Kinds of Units and Conditions Measured by Automatic Elements

    1. Read the table and translate it

    Kind of measuring value

    Measuring value

    Measuring condition

    Mechanical

    Moving (length, width, height, thickness, level), position, speed, acceleration, time, volume, quantity, expenditure, pressure, work, power, moment, etc.

    Density, specific gravity, porosity, permeance, capillarity, surface tension, diffusion potential, hardness, precision, toughness, ductility, yield, elastic,etc.

    Acoustic

    Pressure and velocity of sound, frequency and length of wave, wave phase, resistance, energy, sound work

    Specific resistance, absorption of sound, reflection, velocity of sound in any substance

    Heating

    Temperature, thermal flow, thermal conductivity, quantity of heat, parameter of combustion, ignition, etc.

    Thermal conductivity, calorific value, specific heat (thermal capacity), heat expansion, fusion, boiling, shrinkage, etc.

    Optical

    Brightness, illumination, light flow, wave frequency of the light, energy, etc.

    Absorption of light, reflection, polarization, luminescence, interference, etc.

    Electric

    Current, tensity, field tension, frequency of current, power, spectrum of current, etc.

    Conductivity, nonconductivity (dielectric) permeance, electric strength, electric striction, etc.

    Magnetic

    Magnetic force, magnetic tension, magnetic flow, magnetic resistance, magnetic inductivity, interinductivity, etc.

    Magnetic receptivity and permeance, magnetic inductance, magnetostriction, etc.

    Radioactive

    Flow of radiation, intensity of radiation, radiation energy, etc.

    Absorption, transformation of radiation, etc.

    2.Rewrite the table in Russian

    3.Learn the words and phrases

    Unit 27

    Types of Automation

    Vocabulary

    equipment-оборудование                    assembly machines-сборочные машины

    sequence - последовательность         quantity-количество

    initial -первоначальный                      non-productive-непроизводительный

    investment-инвестиция, вклад            changeover-переход, переналадка

    to facilitate-способствовать

    rate-скорость, темп

    1. Read the text and translate it

    Manufacturing is one of the most important application areas for automation technology. There are several types of automation in manufacturing. The examples of automated systems used in manufacturing are described below.

    1. Fixed automation, sometimes called «hard automation» refers to automated machines in which the equipment configuration allows fixed sequence of processing operations. These machines are programmed by their design to make only certain processing operations. They are not easily changed over from one product style to another. This form of automation needs high initial investments and high production rates. That is why it is suitable for products that are made in large volumes. Examples of fixed automation are machining transfer lines found in the automobile industry, automatic assembly machines and certain chemical processes.

    2. Programmable automation is a form of automation for producing products in large quantities, ranging from several dozen to several thousand units at a time. For each new product the production equipment must be reprogrammed and changed over. This reprogramming and changeover take a period of non-productive time. Production rates in programmable automation are generally lower than in fixed automation, because the equipment is designed to facilitate product changeover rather than for product specialization. A numerical-control machine-tool is a good example of programmable automation. The program is coded in computer memory for each different product style and the machine-tool is controlled by the computer program.

    3. Flexible automation is a kind of programmable automation. Programmable automation requires time to re-program and change over the production equipment for each series of new product. This is lost production time, which is expensive. In flexible automation the number of products is limited so that the changeover of the equipment can be done very quickly and automatically. The reprogramming of the equipment in flexible automation is done at a computer terminal without using the production equipment itself. Flexible automation allows a mixture of different products to be produced one right after another.

    2.Answer the questions:

    1. What is the most important application of automation?

    2. What are the types of automation used in manufacturing?

    3. What is fixed automation?

    4. What are the limitations of hard automation?

    5. What is the best example of programmable automation?

    6. What are the limitations of programmable automation?

    7. What are the advantages of flexible automation?

    8. Is it possible to produce different products one after another using automation  

          technology?

    3.Find equivalents in English in the text:

    1. сфера применения

    2. фиксированная последовательность операций

    3. автоматические сборочные машины

    4.определенные химические процессы

    5. станок с числовым программным управлением

    6. потерянное производственное время

    7. разнообразная продукция

    4.Translate into English:

     1.Существует несколько различных сфер использования автоматизации в производстве.

     2.Для использования жесткой автоматизации необходимы большие инвестиции.

     3. Жесткая автоматизация широко используется в химической промышленности.

     4. Станки с цифровым программным управлением – хороший пример программируемой автоматизации.

     5. Гибкая автоматизация делает возможным программирование оборудования.

     6. Время простоя оборудования оборачивается большими убытками.

     7. Использование гибкой автоматизации делает возможным производство разнообразной продукции.

    5.Explain in English:

      1. automation technology

      2. fixed automation

      3. assembly machines

      4. non-productive time

      5. programmable automation

      6. computer terminal

      7.numerical-control machine-tool

     6. Match the phrases and their translation

          1.automated manufacturing        a) автоматические устройства

          2. feedback principle                  b) гибкая автоматизация

          3. automatic devices                   c) автоматизированное производство                                                              

          4. flexible automation                 d) принцип обратной связи


    Unit 28

    Automated Production Lines

    Vocabulary

    to set up-устанавливать

    changeovers-переключатели

    simultaneously-одновременно

    to utilize-использовать

    to remain-оставаться

    to involve-вовлекать

    laundry (machine)-стиральная (машина)

    furniture-инвентарь

    to require-нуждаться (в чем-либо), требовать (чего-либо)

    1. Read the text and translate it

          An automated production line consists of a series of workstations connected by a transfer system to move parts between the stations. This is an example of fixed automation, since these lines are set up for long production runs, making large number of product units and running for several years between changeovers. Each station is designed to perform a specific processing operation, so that the part or product is constructed stepwise as it progresses along the line. A raw work part enters at one end of the line, proceeds through each workstation and appears at the other end as a completed product. In the normal operation of the line, there is a work part being processed at each station, so that many parts are being processed simultaneously and a finished part is produced with each cycle of the line. The various operations, part transfers, and other activities taking place on an automated transfer line must all be sequenced and coordinated properly for the line to operate efficiently.

          Modern automated lines are controlled by programmable logic controllers, which are special computers that can perform timing and sequencing functions required to operate such equipment. Automated production lines are utilized in many industries, mostly automobile, where they are used for processes such as machining and press working.

          Machining is a manufacturing process in which metal is removed by a cutting or shaping tool, so that the remaining work part is the desired shape. Machinery and motor components are usually made by this process. In many cases, multiple operations are required to completely shape of the part. If the part is mass-produced, an automated transfer line is often the most economical method of production. Many separate operations are divided among the workstations.

           Press working operations involve the cutting and forming of parts from sheet metal. Examples of such parts include automobile body panels, outer shells of laundry machines and metal furniture. More than one processing step is often required to complete a complicated part. Several presses are connected together in sequence by handling mechanisms that transfer the partially completed parts from one press to the next, thus creating an automated pressing work line.

    2.Answer the questions

       1. What is an automated production line consist of?

       2. How does the automated production line work?

       3. Where are automated production lines utilized?

       4. Machining is a controlling process, isn’t it?

       5. When are the automated transfer lines reasonable for manufacturing?

       6. How is the automated pressworking line created?

       7. Give some examples of parts made by machining.

       8. Give some examples of parts made by pressworking.

    3.Translate the phrases into Russian

       1. pressworking line

       2. a transfer system

       3. fixed automation

       4. product units

       5. metal furniture

       6. processing step

       7. separate operations

       8. laundry machines

       9. complicated part

       10. handling mechanism

       11. sequencing functions

    4.Complete the sentences with the words and phrases: machining and

       press working, to operate efficiently, required, coordinated properly,

       cycle, simultaneously, machinery and motor, the equipment, perform.

       1. All activities taking place on an automated transfer line must be sequenced

          and coordinated properly for the line ... .

       2. Automated production lines are used for processes such as ... .

       3. In the normal operation of the line many parts are being processed ... and

           a finished part is produced with each ... of the line.

       4. Special computer ... timing and sequencing functions ... to operate ... .

       5. ... components are usually made by a manufacturing process in which metal is

           removed buy a cutting or shaping tool.

    Unit 29

    Numerical Control

    Vocabulary

    initial- первоначальный                          particular-особый, отдельный

    to define-определять                               sequencing-согласованный

    accurate-точный, тщательный               semiconductor-полупроводник

    precision-точность, четкость                 surface-поверхность

    to insert-помещать                                  to employ-использовать

    to implement-выполнять                         to draft-делать чертеж, составлять план

    indicate-показатель

    to accomplish-доводить до конца, завершать

    x-y-z coordinates in a Cartesian axis system-трехмерная система координат

    в Декартовой системе оси

    to punch-штамповать, проделывать или пробивать отверстия

    1.Read the text and translate it

            Numerical control is a form of programmable automation in which a machine is controlled by numbers (and other symbols) that have been coded on punched paper tape or an alternative storage medium. The initial application of numerical control was in the machine tool industry, to control the position of the cutting tool relative to the work part being machined. The NC part program represents the set of machining instructions for the particular part. The coded numbers in the program specify x-y-z coordinates in the Cartesian axis system, defining the various positions of the cutting tool in relation to the work part. By sequencing these positions in the program, the machine tool is directed to accomplish the machine of the part. A position feedback control system is used in most NC machines to verify that the coded instructions have been correctly performed. Today a small computer is used as the controller in an NC machine tool. Since this form of numerical control is implemented by computer, it is called computer numerical control, or CNC. Another variation in the implementation of numerical control involves sending part programs over telecommunication lines from a central computer to individual machine tools in the factory. This form of numerical control is called direct numerical control, or DNC.

             Many applications of numerical control have been developed since its initial use to control machine tools. Other machines using numerical control include component-insertion machines used in electronics assembly, drafting machines that prepare engineering drawings, coordinate measuring machines that perform accurate inspections of parts. In these applications coded numerical data are employed to control the position of a tool or workhead relative to some object. Such machines are used to position electronic components (e.g., semiconductor chip modules) onto a printed circuit board (PCB). It’s basically an x-y positioning table that moves the printed circuit board relative to the part-insertion head, which then places the individual component into position on the board. A typical printed circuit board has dozen of individual components that must be placed on its surface; in many cases, the lead wires of the components must be inserted into small holes in the board, requiring great precision by the insertion machine. The program that controls the machine indicates which components are to be placed on the board and their locations. This information is contained in the product-design database and is typically communicated directly from the computer to the insertion machine.

    2.Match the definite with their explanation

       1. Computer numerical control

       2. Direct numerical control

       3. Feedback control

       4. Numerical control

       5. Coordinate measuring machines

       6. Drafting machines

       7. Component-insertion machines

                    a) The form of numerical control which involves sending part programs

                        from a central computer to individual machine tools.

                    b) Machines that perform accurate inspections of parts.

                    c) A form of control when a small computer is used as a numerical  

                        control machine tool.

                    d) Machines that prepare engineering drawings.

                    e) A form of programmable automation in which a machine is controlled

                        by numbers.

                    f) Machines which are used in electronics assembly.

                    g) A system of control which is used in most numerical control machines

                        to verify that the coded instructions have been correctly performed.

    3.Answer the questions

       1.What does the term “numerical control” mean?

       2.What does the NC represent?

       3.How is the machine tool directed to accomplish the machining of the part?

       4.What purpose is a position feedback control system used for?

       5.Which of the variations in the implementation of NC called DNC?

       6.When have different applications of NC been developed?

       7.Where is information that controls the machine indicates contained?

    4.Translate into English

        Закодированные инструкции, цифровой контроль, программированная  

        автоматизация, тщательно выполняемые инструкции, направленный на  

        завершение, показатели механизма, осуществление цифрового контроля,

        тщательная проверка, система контроля с обратной связью.

         

       

    Unit 30

    Automated Assembly

    Vocabulary

    manually-ручной                                                    to satisfy-соответствовать

    multiple-составной, имеющий много отделов     quantity-количество

    to deliver-поставлять, выпускать                          attachment-приспособление

    screwdriver-отвёртка                                              particular-особый, отдельный

    to insert-помещать, вставлять                               to require-требоваться

    to employ-употреблять, использовать

    1.Read the text and translate it

         Assembly operations have traditionally been performed manually, either at single assembly workstations or on assembly lines with multiple stations. Owing to the high labor content and high cost of manual labor, greater attention has been given in recent years to the use of automation for assembly work. Assembly operations can be automated using production line principles if the quantities are large, the product is small, and the design is simple (e.g., mechanical pencils, pens, and cigarette lighters). For products that do not satisfy these conditions, manual assembly is generally required.

          Automated assembly machines have been developed that operate in a manner similar to machining transfer lines, with the difference being that assembly operations, instead of machining, are performed at the workstations. A typical assembly machine consists of several stations, each equipped with a supply of components and a mechanism for delivering the components into position for assembly. A workhead at each station performs the actual attachment of the component. Typical workheads include automatic screwdrivers, welding heads and other joining devices. A new component is added to the partially completed product at each workstation, thus building up product gradually as it proceeds through the line. Assembly machines of this type are considered to be examples of  fixed automation, because they are generally configured for a particular product made in high volume. Programmable assembly machines are represented by the component-insertion machines employed in the electronics industry.

    2.Match the English phrases and their Russian equivalents

       1. electronics industry                             a) соответствующие приспособления

       2. fixed automation                                 b) оборудованная станция

       3. assembly operations                            c) в последние годы

       4. manual labor                                     d) высокий уровень

       5. in recent years                                     e) доставка частей

       6. large quantity                                      f) стационарная автоматизация

       7. delivering of the components             g) ручной труд

       8. equipped station                                  h) операция по сборке

       9. actual attachments                               i)  электронная промышленность                      

       10. high volume                                       j) большое количество

    3.Open the brackets and put the verbs in Passive Voice

       1. Assembly operations traditionally (to perform) manually.

       2. Greater attention (to give) in recent years to the use of automation for  

           assembly work..

       3. Manual assembly (to require) for products that do not satisfy such conditions

           as the large quantity, the simple design or the small product.

       4. Automated assembly machines (to develop) that operate in a manner similar to          

           machining transfer lines.

       5. A new component (to add) to the partially completed product at each

           workstation.

       6. Programmable assembly machines (to represent) by the component-insertion              

           machines employed in the electronics industry.

    4.Answer the questions

       1. How have been assembly operations performed both at single assembly

           workstations and on assembly lines?

       2. What are the main reasons for using of automation for assembly work?

       3. What conditions are required for using manual assembly?

       4. What does a typical assembly machine consist of?

       5. What do typical workheads include?

       6. Why are assembly machines considered to be examples of fixed automation?

       7. What kind of assembly machines is employed in the electronics industry?

    Unit 31

    History of  robotics

    Vocabulary

    concept-понятие, общее представление

    medieval churches- средневековые церкви

    advertising-реклама

    entertainment-развлечение

    possible-возможный

    to apply-применять

    to apear-появляться

    to be fed-поддерживаться

    to gain fame-получить признание

    1.Read the text and translate it

       The concept of robots dates back to ancient times, when some myths told of mechanical beings brought to life. Such automata also appeared in the clockwork  figures of medieval churches, and in the 18th century some clockmakers gained fame for the clever mechanical figures that they constructed. Today the term automation is usually applied to this handcrafted, mechanical (rather than electromechanical) devices that imitate the motions of living creatures. Some of the “robots” used in advertising and entertainment are actually automata, even with the addition of remote radio control.

       The term robot itself is derived from the Czech word robota, meaning “compulsory labor”.

        It was first used by the Czech novelist and playwright Karel Chapek, to describe a mechanical device that looks like a human but, lacking human sensibility, can perform only automatic, mechanical operations. Robots as they are known today do not only imitate human or other living forms. True robots did not possible, however, until the invention of the computer in the 1940s and the miniaturization of computer parts. One of the first true robots was an experimental model designed by researchers at the Stanford Research Institute in the late 1960s. It was capable of arranging blocks into stacks through the use of a television camera as a visual sensor, processing this information in a small computer.

       Computers today are equipped with microprocessors that can handle the data being fed to them by various sensors of the surrounding environment. Making use of the principle of feedback, robots can change their operations to some degree in response to changes in that environment. The commercial use of robots is spreading, with the increasing automation of factories, and they have become essential to many laboratory procedures. Japan is the most advanced nation exploring robot technology. Nowadays robots continue to expand their applications. The home-made robots available today may be one sign of the future.

       

    2.Answer the questions

       1.When did the first concept of robots appear?

       2.What does the term “robot” mean?

       3.When did it become possible to built true robots?

       4.Where and when was the first true robot designed?

       5.How can robots change their operations in response to changes in the

          environment?

       6.What nation is the most advanced exploring robot technology?

       7.What is the necessity of robots in industry?

    3.Match the adjectives with the nouns to make the phrases and translate them into  Russian

       1. laboratory                                     a) nation

       2. arranging                                      b) environment

       3. mechanical                                    c) blocks

       4. living                                            d) procedures

       5. human                                           e) devices

       6. surrounding                                   f) use

       7. advanced                                       g) sensibility

       8. commercial                                   h) creatures

    4.Choose the right form of the verb

          1.The robot ... the substitute for human labour.

                 a) provide

                 b) provides

                 c) is provided

                 d) was provided

          2.The applications of robots ... divided into three categories.

                 a) must be

                 b) had be

                 c) may be

                 d) should be

          3.The Czech novelist and playwright Karel Chapek was the first who .... a

             mechanical device that looks like a human.

                  a) described

                  b) describes

                  c) describing

                  d) describe

          4.Robots are the devices which ... automatic, mechanical operations.

                  a) performs

                  b) perform

                  c) have performed

                  d) has performed

          5.Some myths of the ancient times ... of mechanical beings brought to life.

                  a) tells

                  b) has told

                  c) was told

                  d) told

    Unit 32

    Robots in Manufacturing

    Vocabulary

    handling-обращение                                to grasp-схватывать

    transfer-передача, перенос                      spot welding-точечная сварка

    location-местонахождение                      continuous-непрерывный

    pick up-брать, подбирать                        arc welding-электродуговая сварка

    arrangement-расположение                     spray painting-окраска распылителем

    to utilize-находить применение              frame-рама

    gripper-захват                                           spray-painting gun-распылитель

    1.Read the text and translate it

           Today most robots are used in manufacturing operations. The application of robots can be divided into three categories:

               1. material handling

               2. processing operations

               3. assembly and inspection

           Material handling is the transfer of material and loading and unloading of machines. Material-transfer applications require the robot to move materials or work parts from one to another. Many of these tasks are relatively simple: robots pick up parts from one conveyor and place them to another. Other transfer operations are more complex, such placing parts in an arrangement that can be calculated by the robot. Machine loading and unloading operations utilize a robot to load and unload parts. This requires the robot to be equipped with a gripper that can gasp parts. Usually the gripper must be designed specifically for the particular part geometry.

           In robotic processing operations, the robot manipulates a tool to perform a process on the work part. Examples of such applications include spot welding, continuous arc welding and spray painting. Spot welding of automobile bodies is one of the most common applications of industrial robots. The robot positions a spot welder against the automobile and frames to join them. Arc welding is a continuous process in which robot moves the welding rod along the welding seam. Spray painting is the manipulation of a spray-painting gun over the surface of the object to be coated. Other operations in this category include grinding and polishing in which a rotating spindle serves as the robot’s tool.

           The third application area of industrial robots is assembly and inspection. The use of robots in assembly is expected to increase because of the high cost of manual labor. But the design of the product is an important aspect of robotic assembly. Assembly methods that are satisfactory for humans are not always suitable for robots. Screws and nuts are widely used for fastening in manual assembly, but the same operations are extremely difficult for an one-armed robot.

           Inspection is another area of factory operations in which the utilization of robots is growing. In typical inspection job, the robot positions a sensor with respect to the work part and determines whether the part answers the quality specifications. In nearly all industrial robotic provides a substitute for human labor. There are certain characteristics of industrial jobs performed by human that can be done by robots:

              1. the operation in repetitive, involving the same basic work motions every

                  cycle,

              2. the operation in the hazardous or uncomfortable for the human worker (for

                  example: spray painting, spot welding, arc welding, and certain machine  

                  loading and unloading tasks),

              3. the workpiece or tool is too heavy and difficult to handle,

              4. the operation allows the robot to be used on two or three shifts.

    2.Answer the questions

       1. How are robots used in manufacturing?

       2. What is “material handling”?

       3. What does a robot need to be equipped with to do loading and unloading

           operations?

       4. What does robot manipulate in robotic processing operation?

       5. What is the most common application of robots in automobile manufacturing?

       6. What operations could be done by robot in car manufacturing industry?

       7. What are the main reasons to use robots in production?

       8. How can robots inspect the quality of production?

       9. What operations could be done by robots in hazardous or uncomfortable for

           the human workers conditions?

    3. Do the crossword. Find the following words:  

    1.расположение; 2.перфорировать; 3.промышленный; 4.применять;

    5.робот; 6.сборка; 7.детальный; 8.экспертиза; 9.поверхность;

    10.ручной; 11.сварка; 12.обеспечивать; 13.инструмент; 14.погружать.

    P

    P

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    Unit 33

    Famous people of science and engineering

    James Watt

    Vocabulary

    steam-паровой                                                 misconception-ошибочное мнение

    to pump out-выкачивать                                 contribution-вклад

    to determined-определять, устанавливать      density-плотность                                          

    chamber-камера                                               alternately-переменный                      

    to admit-допускать, признавать                     attachment-приспособление

    entirely-полностью, всецело                          measurement-измерение

    flyball governor-центробежный регулятор   to devote-посвящать                                      

    particular-особый, исключительный             civil-гражданский

    to embody-воплотить, реализовать (идею)   to improve-улучшать

    1.Read the text and translate it

             James Watt was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer, known for his improvements of the steam engine.

    Watt was born on January 19, 1736, in Greenock, Scotland. He worked as a mathematical-instrument maker from the age of nineteen and soon became interested in improving the steam engine which was used at that time to pump out water from mines.

             Watt determined the properties of steam, especially the relation of its density to its temperature and pressure, and designed a separate condensing chamber for the steam engine that prevented large losses of steam in the cylinder. Watt’s first patent, in 1769, covered this device and other improvements on steam engine.

           At that time, Watt was the partner of the inventor John Roebuck, who had financed his researches. In 1775, however, Roebuck’s interest was taken over by the manufacturer Matthew Boulton, owner of the Soho Engineering Works at Birmingham, and he and Watt began the manufacture of  steam engines. Watt continued his research and patented several other important inventions, including the rotary engine for driving various types of machinery; the double-action engine, in which steam is admitted alternately into both ends of the cylinder; and the steam indicator, which records the steam pressure in the engine. He retired from the firm in 1800 and thereafter devoted himself entirely to research work.

            The misconception that Watt was the actual inventor of the steam engine arose from the fundamental nature of his contributions to its development. The centrifugal or flyball governor, which he invented in 1788, and which automatically regulated the speed of an engine, is of particular interest today. It embodies the feedback principle of servomechanism, linking output to input, which is the basic concept of automation. The watt, the unit of power, was named in his honor. Watt was a well-known civil engineer. He invented, in 1767, an attachment that adapted telescopes for use in the measurement of distances. Watt died in Heathfield, near Birmingham, in August 1819.

       2.Answer the questions

       1. Who was James Watt?

       2. When did he become interested in improving the steam engine?

       3. What properties of steam did Watt determine?

       4. What did he design after these determinations?

       5. When and where did J.Watt and his partner begin the manufacture of steam

           engines?

       6. Can you name several important Watt’s inventions?

       7. Was Watt the actual inventor of the steam engine?

       8. What is the necessity of the flyball governor invented by Watt in 1788

           nowadays?

       9. What does “ the watt” mean?

    3.Circle the correct word in the sentence

       1. James Watt was a Scottish / a French inventor and mechanical engineer.

       2. At the age of nineteen Watt became interested in improving the vacuum      

           cleaner / the steam engine.

       3. Watt determined the relation of the steam weight / density to its temperature

           and pressure.

       4. In 1769 J.Watt worked with the inventor / the traveler J.Roebuck, who had

           financed his researches.

       5. Later James Watt patented his invention of the rotary engine for controlling        

           driving various types of manufacturing / machinery.

       6. The flyball governor invented by Watt  is automatically regulate the speed

           of  an engine / a telescope.

       

    4. Complete the sentences with one of the verb’s “be” forms “was”, “were”,

        “is”or”are”

       1. Watt ......... a well-known civil engineer.

       2. Many of Watt’s inventions ................... patented by him.

       3. John Roebuck and James Watt .................... good partners.

       4. J.Watt ....................born in 1736 in Scotland.

       5. Today the centrifugal or flyball governor .................the basic concept of

           automation.

       5. The Scottish people ................proud of their outstanding engineer.

       6. James Watt .................known for his improvements of the steam engine.

       7. Watt’s first patent ...............the device named a separate condencing

           chamber.

           

    5.Name the events of  James Watt’s life according to the certain dates:

       1. January 19, 1736;                                3. 1767

                                                 2. 1755;                                4.1769

       

       5. 1775;                                                    7. August 1819

                                                  6. 1788;

    Unit 34

    Famous people of science and engineering

    Thomas Elva Edison

    Vocabulary

    an electric light bulb- лампа накаливания

    to supply-поставлять

    a substitute for rubber- заменитель каучука

    a shortage-недостаток, дефицит, нехватка

    a dropout-бросивший школу

    1.Read the text and translate it

         Most people know that Thomas Edison invented the first working light bulb, but they don't know anything else about him. Edison had almost no formal schooling, yet he invented over 1000 different things. Among Edison's inventions are: the phonograph, the movie camera and the movie projector.  

         Thomas Edison invented his electric light bulb in 1879, but there was still much work to do. No one knew how to use electricity outside of a laboratory before Thomas Edison. He and his workers had to create a safe electric system. First they had to build a factory. Then they had to build the dynamos (generators) to make the electricity. Next they had to send out the electricity. To show people that he was serious, Edison began his project in New York City. By 1887, much of New York City had electricity. Edison founded the Edison Electric Light Company and continued to supply electricity to New York and other places. Thomas Edison lived until 1931.

          He continued to invent all his life. After the War, he tried to invent a substitute for rubber because of the shortage that the war caused. Thomas Edison was a true genius, but he never went to college or university. The only time Edison attended school was when he was seven years old. He stayed for three months and never returned. Thomas Edison was a dropout, yet he became one of America's most famous and most honored men.

    2.Answer the questions

    1. How many things did Edison invent?
    2. When was the light bulb invented?
    3. What did he need to create electricity for?
    4. What company did Edison found?
    5. Where and how long did T.Edison study?

    3.Thomas Edison was a great  American inventor. He patented over 1000 inventions.

      What are some of his inventions and improvements? How did it happen?

    1.Emilie Berliner improved and patented a gramophone, which had been invented by T.Edison in 1877 and was known as a phonograph.

    First Thomas Edison invented a phonograph in 1877. Later Emilie Berliner improved that machine and patented it as a gramophone.

    2.In August of 1877 T.Edison improved a talking machine, which had been invented by Charles Grow in 1877. He replaced a wax turntable by a tinfoil turntable.

    3.On August 12, 1877, Edison began experimenting with an apparatus which had been already ordered and built for him.

    4.Thomas Edison invented and produced many new items and improvements of the telegraph, which had been invented by Samuel F.B.Morse in 1837.

    5.By the time Thomas Edison organized an “invention factory” in 1877 a lot of inventions and improvements had been already made by him and his assistants.

    6.One of Thomas Edison’s first inventions was an improvement on A.Bell’s telephone which had been invented by Alexander Bell in 1876.

    7.Over a year one thousand and six hundred  materials had been tested by Thomas Edison before he developed a light bulb.

    Unit 35

    Famous people of science and engineering

    Isaac Newton

    Vocabulary

    calculus-исчисление

    to put smth to test-подвергнуть что-либо испытанию, проверить

    reflect-отражать

    Binomial Theorem-бином Ньютона

    the differential and integral calculus-дифференциальное и интегральное исчисление

    universe square law-закон равенства действия и противодействия

    in accordance with-в соответствии с

    “Elements of Natural Philosophy”-«Математические начала натуральной философии»

    the law of gravitation-закон тяготения

    Proper Names

    Isaac Newton-Исаак Ньютон

    Galileo-Галилео

    Descartes-Декарт Рене, французский ученый, 1596-1650

    1.Read the text and translate it

         The great English scientist Isaac Newton was born in the village of Woolthorpe, not far from the university town of Cambridge on December 25, 1642. Little Isaac was left to the care of his mother, grandmother and uncle who sent him to school. In his early years young Isaac showed more as one who could make things with his hand than a scholar. He made various things. He made a clock that worked by water. He also made a sun-dial. When Isaac grew older, he took a considerable interest in mathematics. His ability as mathematician and physicist was very important. His first physical experiment was carried out when he was sixteen years old.

         On June 5, 1661 Newton entered the University of Cambridge where he studied mathematics. Soon he became famous for his contribution to mathematics by the time he was twenty-one. When Newton was twenty-two years old he began studying the theory of gravitation. In 1665, while he was on a visit in his native village, he saw an apple fall from a tree and began wondering what force made the apple fall.

         At Cambridge Newton read with great interest the writings of Galileo, he knew the geometry of Descartes, he worked out the methods of calculus. So when he began to think of “gravity extending to the orb of the moon” he immediately put this idea to the test of calculation. Newton performed many experiments with light and found that white light was made up of rays of different colors. He invented a reflecting telescope that was very small in diameter but magnified objects to forty diameters. Newton developed a mathematical method which is known as the Binomial Theorem and also differential and integral calculus.

         In 1669 Newton was appointed professor and began lectures on mathematics and optics at Cambridge and continued his work on the problem of gravitation. In 1673 Newton gathered together all his earlier calculations and succeeded in completing his whole theory. He examined the attraction of one mass by another. He showed that the massive sphere here attracts another as if the whole mass was in the centre. This was of great importance. It enabled Newton to treat the problems of the sun, moon and earth like problems of geometry. He at last justified the method of treatment which he had first adopted for the problem of the earth and moon. The proof of his universe square law was not complete. He had demonstrated that the gravitation pull of the earth extends as far as the moon and keeps it in its orbit. He demonstrated that this pull is in accordance with the same law as that by which a stone falls to the ground, namely gravity. Newton’s great work “Elements of Natural Philosophy” was published only in the middle 1687.

         Newton’s law of universe squares joined in one simple mathematical statement the behavior of the planets as well as of bodies on this earth. It was the first synthesis of physical knowledge. As such his contribution to science is unique.

          Isaac Newton died in 1727 at the age of 85. He was buried with honors as a national hero. It was the first time that national honors of this kind had been accorded in England to a man of science.

    2.Answer the questions

       1. Was Isaak Newton the bright child?

       2. When did Newton begin to study theory of gravitation?

       3. What did Newton find about white light?

       4. How did Newton demonstrate his discovery?

       5. What did Newton’s law of universe square join?

       6. How was he buried?

    3.Translate the words and explain their formation

       Calculus, calculate, calculation

       Mathematics, mathematical, mathematician

    4.Finish the sentences with the words and phrases: the Binomial Theorem, performed, was carried out, rays of different colors, contribution, developed, gravitation, was appointed

       1. His first physical experiment ... when he was sixteen years old.

       2. Newton  ... many experiments with light and found that white light was made

           up of ... .

       3. He became famous for his ... to mathematics by the time he was twenty-one.

       4. Newton ... a mathematical method which is known as ... and also differential

           and integral calculus.

       5. Newton ... professor and began lectures on mathematics and optics at

          Cambridge and continued his work on the problem of ... .

    Unit 36

    Famous people of science and engineering

    Nicolai Ivanovich  Lobachevski

    Vocabulary

    non-Euclidean geometry-неэвклидова геометрия

    to remain true to-оставаться верным чему-либо

    to become interested in-заинтересоваться

    A Brief Outline of the Principles of Geometry Strictly Demonstrating the Theorem of Parallel Lines-cжатое изложение основ геометрии со строгим доказательством теоремы о параллельных линиях

    1.Read the text and translate it

       N.I.Lobachevsky is a great Russian mathematician  and the creator  of non-Euclidean geometry. He was born on December 1,1792 in Nizhniy Novgorod in a poor family. When N.I.Lobachevsky was a child, his father died and the family moved to Kazan. There the boy learned at the gymnasium from 1802 to 1807 he entered Kazan University. At the university N.I.Lobachevsky spent the next forty years of his life as a student, professor and rector.

       N.I.Lobachevsky became interested in mathematics when he was still a schoolboy and he remained true to this science all his life long.

       N.I.Lobachevsky did a lot to make Kazan University a first rate educational institution. At the same time he made extensive researches into mathematics.

       On February 23, 1823 a great event took place at Kazan University. N.I.Lobachevsky presented a paper «A Brief Outline of the Principles of Geometry Strictly Demonstrating the Theorem of Parallel Lines». That day a new geometrical system, the so- called non-Euclidean geometry was born.

       In the years that followed N.I.Lobachevsky wrote a number of works in the field of algebra and mathematical analysis. However, nearly nobody understood and recognized his works at that time. They were recognized only twelve years after his death.

       Lobachevski’s ideas greatly influenced the development not only of geometry and other mathematical sciences, but also mechanics, physics and astronomy.

       One British mathematician called N.I.Lobachevsky « Copernicus of geometry».

    2.Answer the questions

    1)  When was N.I.Lobachevsky born?

    2)  When did he get his education?

    3) What science was he fascinated by?

    4)  What was his research about?

    5)  What did his work influence on?

    3.Complete the sentences with the following verbs. Use the right form (Past Simple): take place, spend, be, become, make, follow, write, call, recognize.

    1. N.I.Lobachevsky ... interested in mathematics when he ... still a schoolboy.

    2.At the university the scientist ... the next forty years of his life as a student, professor and rector.

    3.In Kazan University he ... extensive researches into mathematics.

    4.A great event of presenting a paper «A Brief Outline of the Principles of Geometry Strictly Demonstrating the Theorem of Parallel Lines» by N.I.Lobachevsky ... in 1823.

    5. In the years that ... N.I.Lobachevsky ... a number of works in the field of algebra and mathematical analysis.

    6.People ... the scientist’s works only twelve years after his death.

    7. One British mathematician ... N.I.Lobachevsky « Copernicus of geometry».

    4.Translate in writing the phrases into Russian

    a first rate educational institution

    extensive researches into mathematics

    works in the field algebra

    greatly influenced ideas

    the development of geometry

    Unit 37

    Famous people of science and engineering

    Sikorsky Igor Ivanovich

    Tupolev Andrei Nikolayevich

    Vocabulary

    naval – (военно-)морской

    aircraft – 1.самолет, 2.авиационный

    helicopter – вертолет

    wind tunnel – аэродинамическая труба

    jet – реактивный (двигатель)

    1.Read the text and translate it

       Sikorsky Igor Ivanovich was a well-known aircraft engineer and manufacturer.

       Sikorsky was born in 1889 in Kiev, in the Ukraine, and got his education at the naval college in St. Petersburg, and later in Kiev and Paris. He was the first to make experiments in helicopter design. In 1913 he designed, built, and flew the first successful aeroplane. Later he built military aircrafts for Russia and France.

       In 1919 Sikorsky moved to the United States and later helped to organize an aircraft company that produced a series of multiengine flying boats for commercial service. Sikorsky became an American citizen in 1928. In the late 1930s he returned to developing helicopters and produced the first successful helicopter in the west. Helicopters designed by Sikorsky were used mostly by the US Army Air Forces during World War II. He died in 1972 at the age of 83.

       Tupolev Andrei Nikolayevich, famous aircraft designer, was born in 1888. He graduated from the Moscow Higher Technical School, where he designed the first Russian wind tunnel. He helped to found the Central Aero hydrodynamics Institute in 1918 and later worked as the head of its design bureau. During his career he directed the design of more than 100 military and commercial aircraft, including the TU-2 and TU-4 bombers used in the World War II. In 1955 he designed the TU-104, the first passenger jet airliner. His TU-144 supersonic jet liner began its commercial passenger flights in 1977.

     2. Write three forms of the verbs from the text and use them as a brief plan to

        perform  task 3

        To be, to get, to build, to make, to design, to fly, to move, to help, to produce, to

         become, to return, to use, to die;

         To graduate, to found, to work, to direct, to begin.

    3. Divide the text into two parts according to the information about Russian

         outstanding persons and retell the texts

    4. Write three forms of the verbs from the text and use them as a brief plan to

        perform the next task

        To be, to get, to build, to make, to design, to fly, to move, to help, to produce, to become, to return, to use, to die;

         To graduate, to found, to work, to direct, to begin.

    5.Read and find the right answer

      1.The unit of measuring current was named in honor of ... .

              a) the French physicist A.M.Ampere

              b) the famous British physicist J.P.Joule

              c) the well-known Swedish inventor A.B.Nobel

              d) the famous invention of the Russian chemist D.I.Mendeleev

      2.The unit of energy is named after ...

              a) W.Thomson

              b) J.P.Joule

              c) J.Watt

              d) M.Boulton

      3. Sikorsky Igor Ivanovich started his career with ... .

              a) building bombs

              b) designing of the helicopter

              c) building of the military aircraft

              d) heading of the design bureau

      4. N.I.Lobachevsky is a great Russian mathematician  and the creator  of ... .

              a) non-Euclidean geometry.

              b) supersonic jet

              c) law of universe squares

              d) moving armchair

      5. The First Electric Light Company in New York City was founded by ... .

              a) Michael Faraday

              b) Thomas Elva Edison

              c) Mark Twain

              d) Charles Babbage

    Unit 38

    Safety Engineering

    Vocabulary

    prevention – предотвращение, предупреждение

    to adopt –  принимать

    hazardous – опасный

    suggest –предлагать

    accidental – случайный, второстепенный

    seek – стремиться

    to avoid – избегать

    to eliminate – устранять

    alteration - изменение

    1.Read the text and translate it

           This field of engineering has as its object the prevention of accidents. In recent years safety engineering has become a specialty adopted by individuals trained in other branches of engineering. Safety engineers develop methods and procedures to safeguard workers in hazardous occupations. They also assist in designing machinery, factories, ships and roads, suggesting alterations and improvements to reduce the possibility of accident.

            In the design of machinery, for example, the safety engineer try to cover all moving parts or keep them from accidental contact with the operator, to put cut off switches within reach of the operator and to eliminate dangerous sharp parts. In designing roads the safety engineer seeks to avoid such hazards as sharp turns and blind intersections that lead to traffic accidents.

    Watch out!

    2.Match the correct instructions with their translation

      1.Wear safety boots.                         a) Руками не трогать

      2.Don’t enter.                                  b) Парковка запрещена.

      3.Don’t use a mobile phone here.       c) Осторожно! Взрывоопасные вещества.

      4.Emergency exit this way                d) Не курить.

      5.Be careful! Dangerous liquid.         e) Не включать!

      6.Don’t touch.                                  f) Осторожно! Высокое напряжение

      7.Wear safety goggles in the area.      g) Надеть обувь.

      8.Don’t park here.                            h) Запасной выход.

      9.Be careful! Explosive material.       i) Осторожно! Опасно!

      10.Watch out! Danger!                     j) Отключить мобильные телефоны.

      11.Don’t switch on!                          k) Не входить.

      12.Danger of an electric shock.          l) Для безопасности оденьте очки

      13.Don’t smoke here.                       m) Осторожно! Опасные растворы.

      14.Wear a hard hat.                          n) Надеть каску.

    3.Read the instructions and complete the sentences with should or shouldn’t.

      1.Don’t connect the blue cable to the battery.

         The blue cable   shouldn’t    be connected to the battery.

      2.Switch off the machine first.

         The machine  should  be switched off first.

      3.Don’t remove the safety guard.

        The safety guard  .................  be removed.

      4.Replace the cover after use.

        The cover  ................ be replaced after use.

      5. Don’t connect the wire to terminal A.

         The wire  .................. be connected to terminal A.

      6.Don’t store the cylinders outside.

         The cylinders ................ be stored outside.

    4.Give the safety instructions in a different way. Use the phrases in the list.

              Never ...              Don’t ...               Always ...

       1.You mustn’t put your hands near the blade.

          ...Never put your hands near the blade..............

       2.You have to wear a hard hat in this area.

           ...........................................................................

       3.You mustn’t remove the safety guard.

           ...........................................................................

       4.You have to keep this area clean.

           ...........................................................................

       5.You must switch the machine off after you use it.

           .............................................................................

       6.You mustn’t touch the cable.

          ..............................................................................

       7.You mustn’t bring any flame near the fuel.

          ..............................................................................

       8.You mustn’t lock the fire door.

           .............................................................................

       9.In case of fire, you must use the stairs.

          ..............................................................................

    5.Read the text and retell it.

    Unit 39

    Safety in Manufacturing

    Vocabulary

    to prevent – предотвращать                        elimination - устранение

    to exceed – превышать                                reduction – сокращение, уменьшение

    to acquainte – знакомиться                          injury - травма

    requirement – необходимый                        portable – складной, передвижной

    to arrange – привести в порядок                 slippery - скользкий

    to avoid – избегать                                       sufficiently – достаточно

    hoist – подъемник, лебёдка                         load - груз

    to ensure – обеспечивать, гарантировать   dent - вмятина

    grinding – шлифование                                to require – требовать(ся)

    goggles -защитные очки                              shield – защитный экран

    to postpone –откладывать                            fence – ограждение

    caution - осторожность

    1.Read the text and translate it

         The term “safety in manufacturing” means a set of  technical and organizing measures to reach a safe working environment and to prevent accidents in manufacturing.

         In order to ensure safety there is a special security service subordinated to the chief engineer of the plant who realizes activities to follow safe working conditions and to control the state of occupational safety. All workers at any plant should be acquainted with safe methods of work and trained in them.

        As a part of ensuring safety at the plant (the factory) there are systematically carried out activities to ensure the reduction of injuries and the elimination of the possibility of any accidents.

        To avoid the accidents at the enterprise one should learn safety rules and always strictly carry them out.

        Here are some special requirements for safety before one starts to work.

       1. To arrange working clothes and put it on.

       2. To wear work boots

       3. To inspect the working place carefully. One should be sure that the working

           tools and equipment are in order.

       4. To check that the work place is sufficiently well lit and the light doesn’t blind

           ones eyes.

       5. To check the portable electric lamp (the voltage should not exceed 36 V).

       6. To ensue that the workplace floor is in the perfect conditions, no dents, no

           slippery surfaces, etc.

       7. To check hoist’s serviceability, lift the load on the low altitude and to ensure

           the reliability of breakers, slings and chains.

       8. To pre-select methods of treatment consider ease of tool change and make

           measurements.

       9. It’s required to wear safety goggles (if the disk is no shield) when sharpening a

          tool for grinding wheels. If there’s a shield, one shouldn’t postpone it to the side

          and use for the own safety.

       10. To monitor the serviceability of the rotating parts of the machine fences.

       11. Not to remove the shaving hands and use the wire hook.

       12. To use compressed air with great caution.

    2. Answer the questions

        1. What does the term “safety in manufacturing” mean?

        2. Who does realize the safety activities at any plant or factory?

        3. How can any worker avoid the accident at the enterprise?

        4. What safety rules are should you know for performing your work?

    3.Discuss the following statements. Use the phrases to express your opinion

       1. It seems to me (that) ...

       2. I should like to say that ...

       3. As I see it ...

       4. I think that ...

       5. I guess ...

       6. I suppose ...

       7. I (strongly) believe that ...

       8. I’m (absolutely) sure that ...

    Statement A

         It isn’t necessary for the student to learn the enterprise’s safety rules

         before he (or she) comes to the plant or to the factory as a worker. It’ll be

         necessary only after his (or her) graduating, because there’s a great amount of

         the student’s rules and duties at the college.

    Statement B

        There are many accidents at the enterprises with industrial injury or disability

         results because of the neglecting of  the following the safety rules

    Statement C

          The knowledge of the instructions to the new enterprises’ equipment is one of

           the main safety rules both for young and for experienced workers    

    Unit 40

    Revise of The Achievements 1

    1. Сопоставьте цифры со способом их чтения

          1. ¾                        a) three quarters

          2. 5.68                    b) two point two percent

          3. 7 ½                     c) five point six eight

          4. 2.2%                  d) seven and a half

    2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа  

          Seventeen ... thirteen equals two hundred and twenty-one.

              a) times (multiplied by)

              b) divided by

              c) minus

              d) plus

     3. Выберите правильный модальный глагол

          The applications of robots ... divided into three categories.

               a) must be

               b) had be

               c) may be

               d) should be

    4. Соотнесите выражения с переводом

          1.automated manufacturing        a) автоматические устройства

          2. feedback principle                  b) гибкая автоматизация

          3. automatic devices                   c) автоматизированное производство                                                              

          4. flexible automation                 d) принцип обратной связи

    5. Закончите предложение

          The unit of energy is named after ...

              a) W.Thomson

              b) J.P.Joule

              c) J.Watt

              d) M.Boulton

    6. Выберите правильный вариант ответа

          A direct current ... .

             a) is a current that changes its direction

             b) is a current which flows in one direction only

             c) one of two main types of current

             d) flows in cycle

    7. Выберите правильный вариант ответа

          Motor’s main part is ...

               a) the frame

               b) the armature

               c) the stator

               d) the circuit

    8. Соотнесите выражения с их определениями

         1.Electric current               a) a current which always flows in one and the same

                                                        direction

         2.Direct current                 b) a flow of passage of electricity along an electric

                                                        circuit, usually measured in amperes

         3. Alternating current        c) a current which periodically alternates or reverses

                                                        in direction

         4. Continuous current        d) a current uniform both in strength and in direction.

     9. Выберите  правильный вариант вопроса к предложению

          The feedback principle is used in all automatic control mechanisms

          when machines have ability to correct themselves.

                 a) Where is the feedback principle used?

                 b) Where did the feedback principle used?

                 c) Where was the feedback principle used?

                 d) Where can be the feedback principle used?

    10. Выберите правильный вариант ответа  

          ... the ability of a material to deform without breaking.

               a) Stiffness

               b) Ductility

               c) Creep resistance

               d) Density

    11. Соотнесите выражения с переводом

          1. distribution centre               a) подземные линии передач

          2. power consumption            b) распределительный центр

          3. transmission line                 c) линия передачи

          4. underground lines               d) потребление энергии

    12. Выберите правильный вариант ответа

         Many people have had ... shock from the electric wires in a house.

            a) strong

            b) the strongest

            с) stronger

            d) interesting.

    13. Выберите правильную форму глагола  

          The robot ... the substitute for human labor.

              a) provide

              b) provides

              c) is provided

              d) was provided

    14. Выберите правильный вариант ответа

          Atomic power plants ... of several main units and a great number of

          auxiliary ones.

              a) consists

              b) consist

              c) are consist

              d) were consisted

    15. Соотнесите вероятную причину поломки электродвигателя и способ

          восстановления

          1. Fuses are faulty                               a) Check the rheostat and repair it

          2. Pressure is low                                b) Replace the fuses

          3. Rotor circuit has poor contact         c) Repair the shorting mechanism

          4. Rheostat is shorted                          d) Adjust the pressure

    16. Выберите правильный вариант ответа

          The watt, the unit of power, ... in honor of James Watt.

              a) was named

              b) is named

              c) named

              d) can be named

     17. Выберите правильную форму глагола  

          The electricity ... in the battery.

    1. stored
    2. is stored
    3. are stored
    4. will be stored

    18. Закончите предложение

          The ohmmeter serves to measure ...

    1. power
    2. resistance
    3. voltage
    4. current

    19. Выберите правильный вариант ответа                              

          ... you ... the light before you left the house?

              a) Did ... switch off

              b) Have ... switched off

              c) Do ... switch off

              d) Had ... switch off

    20. Выберите правильную форму глагола

           Electromagnetic devices called relays ... widely in various branches of    

           industry.

             a) were used

             b) have been used

             c) had been used

             d) are used.

    21. Соотнесите выражения с переводом

          1.available equipment                     a) взаимная индуктивность

          2. source of electric energy             b) источник электрической энергии

          3. definite value                               c) имеющееся оборудование

          4. mutual inductance                       d) определенная величина

    22. Выберите правильный вариант ответа                              

          What types of current do you know?

                a) alternating current

                b) perfect current

                c) direct current

                d) individual current

    23. Закончите предложение

          The function of insulator is ... .

              a) to isolate the metal plates

              b) to store energy

              c) to supply voltage

              d) to prevent a short.

    24. Выберите правильный вариант ответа на вопрос

          What’s the most important application of automation?

                a) manufacturing

                b) education

                c) industry

                d) history

    25.Выберите правильную форму глагола  

          Current ... through the filament winding to its centre tap.

               a) flows

               b) flowing

               c) flies

               d) flew

    26. Выберите правильный вариант ответа                              

          A transformer is used ... .

                a) to store charge

                b) to prevent the change of energy

                c) to transfer energy

                d) to change the voltage and current value in a circuit

    27. Закончите предложение

          The inductance of a coil depends upon ... .

              a) its size

              b) its core

              c) its material

              d) its number of turns.

    28. Выберите правильный вариант ответа на вопрос

          What are the main components of any current?

               a) They are: utilizing loads and connecting conductors

               b) They are loads and wires

               c) They are: devices that produce and utilize electric energy

               d) They are: a power source, utilizing loads and connecting conductors

    29. Соотнесите аббревиатуру и ее полное определение

          1. d.c.                             a) alternating current

          2. e.m.f.                          b) direct current

          3. a.c.                             c) cycles per second

          4. c/s                              d) electromotive force

    30. Выберите правильный вариант ответа

          What type of circuit is used in order to have the same value of current

           in all the elements?

               a) a series circuit

               b) a parallel circuit

               c) any circuit

               d) a small circuit

    31. Выберите правильный вариант ответа на вопрос

          1. In what position does the switch have high (low) resistance?

          2. What are the functions of the switch?

          3. In what position is the switch open? Closed?

          4. In what way is the switch connected to the circuit?

                           a) Switches are used to open and close the circuits.

                           b) Closed is the on-position; open is the off-position.

                           c) The switch is connected in series with the load.

                           d) In the on-position the closed switch has a very low resistance,

                               which results in maximum current in the load with zero voltage

                               loss across the switch. When the switch is off it has a very high

                               resistance and no current flows through the circuit.

                                     Revise of The Achievements 2

    1. Сопоставьте цифры со способом их чтения

          1. 60%                   a) one third

          2. 2.87                   b) three and a half

          3. 1/3                     c) two point eight seven

          4. 3 ½                    d) sixty percent

    2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа  

          5.34

              a) five point thirty-four

              b) five thirty-four

              c) five three four

              d) five point three four

    3. Выберите правильный модальный глагол

         For each new product the producing equipment ... reprogrammed and

         changed over.

              a) must be

              b) may be

              c) can be

              d) should be

    4. Соотнесите выражения с переводом

          1. automation technology               a) непродуктивное время

          2. non-productive time                   b) сборочные машины

          3. assembly machines                     c) технология автоматизации

          4. fixed automation                         d) стационарная автоматизация

    5. Закончите предложение

          The unit of measuring current was named in honor of ... .

              a) the French physicist A.M.Ampere

              b) the famous British physicist J.P.Joule

              c) the well-known Swedish inventor A.B.Nobel

              d) the famous invention of the Russian chemist D.I.Mendeleev.

    6. Закончите предложение

          An alternating current ... .

              a) is a current that changes its direction

              b) is a current that flows in one direction only

              c) is the only type of current

              d) flows in cycle.

    7. Выберите правильный вариант ответа

          Motors are used for ... different forms of energy into mechanical energy.

                a) converting

                b) transmitting

                c) collecting

                d) dividing

    8. Соотнесите выражения с переводом

          1. distribution centre               a) подземные линии передач

          2. power consumption            b) распределительный центр

          3. transmission line                 c) линия передачи

          4. underground lines               d) потребление энергии

    9. Соотнесите названия и механические свойства материалов

         1. density                             a) the force per unit area that a material can support

                                                          without failing

         2. stiffness                             b) the amount of mass in a unit volume, measured

                                                        in kg per cubic meter. Important in any application

                                                          where the material must not be heavy

         3. strength                             c) a measure of resistance to deformation such as

                                                           stretching or bending. Important when a rigid            

                                                           structure is to be made

         4. ductility                            d) the ability of a material to deform without

                                                          breaking

    10. Выберите правильный вариант ответа на вопрос                              

          What type of circuit is called the primary?

                a) the circuit connected to the voltage source

                b) the circuit connected to the load circuit

                c) the circuit receiving energy

                d) the circuit loosing energy

    11. Выберите  правильный вариант ответа

         ... is a measure of the resistance to deformation such as stretching or bending.

              a) stiffness

              b) density

              c) strength

              d) toughness

    12. Соотнесите выражения с переводом

          1. feeding transformer              a) двухтактный усилитель

          2. push-pull amplifier               b) регенеративный усилитель

          3. secondary resistance             c) силовой трансформатор

          4. feedback amplifier               d) дополнительное сопротивление

    13. Выберите правильный вариант ответа                              

          Manufacturing is one of ... application areas for automation technology.

               a) the less important

               b) the most important

               c) important

               d) unimportant

    14. Выберите правильную форму глагола  

          Usually the fibers ... 60 per cent by volume.

               a) makes up

               b) maked up

               c) make up

               d) made up

    15. Выберите правильный вариант ответа

          The watt, the unit of power, ... in honor of James Watt.

              a) was named

              b) is named

              c) named

              d) can be named

    16. Соотнесите названия электронных ламп с определениями

          1. a diode             a) contains the cathode, the plate and the control grid

          2. a triode             b) contains the cathode and the plate

          3. a tetrode           c) contains the cathode, the plate, the control grid and

                                           the screen grid

          4. a pentode         d) contains two electrodes and three grids

    17. Выберите правильную форму глагола  

          Flexible automation ... a mixture of different products to be produced

          one right after another.

               a) allow

               b) helps

               c) allows

               d) help

    18.  Дайте название прибора

          The meter which is used to measure the value of the resistance is ... .

               a) ohmmeter

               b) ammeter

               c) voltmeter

               d) bulb

    19. Выберите правильный вариант ответа                              

          The danger of electric shock ... on the wet and hot atmosphere.

               a) increases

               b) decreases

               c) disappears

               d) appears

    20. Выберите правильную форму глагола

          Transmission lines ...  power from a station to distribution centers.

               a) delivers

               b) deliver

               c) have delivered

               d) is delivering

    21. Выберите правильный вариант перевода предложения

          Solid insulators are the most commonly used insulating materials.

    1. Самые распространенные изоляционные материалы – твердые

    изоляторы.

              b) Твердые изоляторы часто используют для изоляции материалов.

              c) Твердые изоляторы широко применяются для изоляции проводников

              d) Твердые изоляторы – материалы, которые необходимы для изоляции

    22.  Выберите правильный вариант вопроса к данному предложению

         One should take into consideration that 50 mA current is dangerous for life,

         it may result in an electric shock.

              a) What current is dangerous for life?

              b) What current does dangerous for life?

              c) What is current dangerous for life?

              d) What do current dangerous for life?

    23. Соотнесите слова с их определениями

         1.voltmeter                  a)any substance which has mass and occupies space

         2.electric current         b)the smallest particle of matter

         3. matter                      c)a device used to measure the value of voltage

         4. atom                        d)a quantity of electrons flowing in a circuit per second

                                                of time

    24. Выберите правильный вариант ответа

                                                 Voltage (in volts)

            Current (in amperes) = Resistance (in ohms)

    1. Ohm’s Law
    2. Faraday’s Law

            c) Lenz’s Law

            d) Kirchhoff’s Law.

    25. Закончите предложение

          Power sources are used ...

                a) to produce electric energy

                b) to deliver electric energy to the loads

                c) to connect the circuit elements

                d) to measure electric energy

    26. Выберите правильный вариант ответа                              

          Watt’s first patent in1769, covered his different improvements on ... .

               a) vacuum cleaner

               b) microwave oven

               c) steam engine

               d) mobile phone

    27. Выберите правильную форму глагола  

         Any instrument which measures electrical values ... a meter.

               a) is called

               b) was called

               c) had been called

               d) is.

    28. Выберите правильный вариант ответа                              

          Electrone tubes are used ...

              a) as amplifiers only

              b) as oscillators only

              c) as rectifiers, amplifiers and oscillators

              d) as amplifiers and oscillators

    29. Выберите правильный вариант ответа

           Aluminum is used in electric engineering due to its ...

                a) high cost

                b) low cost and high efficiency

                c) low efficiency

                d) low cost and variety  

    30 Выберите правильный вариант ответа                              

          A fuse serves as ...

               a) a load device

               b) a protection device

               c) a main device

              d) a transmitting device

    31. Соедините в предложение правую и левую части задания

          1. Engineering deals both with...            a) used extensively in automated                              

                                                                              manufacturing and in robotics.

          2. Fiber optics are extremely light,...      b) the most rapidly growing field.

          3. Engineers work on control systems    c) they have great carrying capacity.

              which are ...

          4. Engineering today is ...                       d) electric and electronic industries.

     Рекомендуемая литература

    1. Коваленко П.И., Агабекян И.П. Английский для технических ВУЗов./ . П.И. Коваленко, И.П. Агабекян Учебное пособие. Ростов-на-Дону: Феникс, 2008.-350с.

    2. Луговая А.Л. Английский язык для студентов технических специальностей: Учебное пособие/ А.Л. Луговая- М.: «Высшая школа»; Издательский центр «Академия», 2001-150с.

    3. Радовель В.А. Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности: Учебное пособие/ В.А.  Радовель– Ростов н /Д: Феникс, 2006.-224с.

    4. Иностранные языки в школе: журнал; Учрежден Министерством образования и науки РФ

    5. 1сентября English: Приложение к газете «1 сентября»; Учрежден Министерством образования и науки РФ

    6. Электронный ресурс: Полезные веб-ресурсы и материалы в помощь преподавателям.

    Формы доступа: http://www.britishcouncil.org/japan-trenduk-ukcities.htm

    7. Электронный ресурс Викепедия Энциклопедия на английском языке.

    Формы доступа:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_British_Isles;

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_London;

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Revolutionary_War;

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Canada

    8. Образовательный Интернет-ресурс Приложение к газете «1 сентября English».

    ФОРМЫ ДОСТУПА:WWW.BOOKSHUTNT.RU/…SENTYABRYA-ENGLISH 1SENTYABRYA

    9. Интернет ресурс Информационные технологии в обучении языку.

    Формы доступа:http.//www.just-English.ru



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