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    Элективный курс по английскому языку для учащихся 9-го класса «Страноведение Великобритании»
    элективный курс (английский язык, 9 класс) по теме

    Макаренко Ирина Андреевна

    Данный элективный курс  разработан для учащихся 9-ых классов и рассчитан на 8 часов.Он способствует поддержанию и углублению интереса к изучению английского языка. Выбранные для изучения темы являются бытовыми. Они знакомят учащихся с бытовой культурой, а значит, подготавливают их к правильному поведению в стране изучаемого языка. Они также помогают углубить и систематизировать страноведческие знания, полученные на уроках.

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    Элективный курс по английскому языку для учащихся 9-ого класса «Страноведение Великобритании».

    Автор: Макаренко И.А.

    Пояснительная записка.

    На современном этапе развития общества перед системой образования встала задача подготовки школьников к культурному, профессиональному и личному общению с представителями иноязычной культуры.

    В соответствии с государственным образовательным стандартом образование средствами иностранного языка предполагает:

    1. знание о культуре, истории, реалиях и традициях стран изучаемого
      языка;
    2. включение школьников в диалог культур;
    3. осознание роли родного языка и культуры в зеркале культуры другого языка.

    Современные УМК по английскому языку (автор Кузовлев В.П.) ориентированы в большей степени на формирование языковой деятельности и дают отрывочные страноведческие знания, превращая тем самым лингвострановедческий аспект образования во вспомогательный, иллюстративный.

    Поэтому данный курс рассчитан на углубленное изучение страноведения Великобритании. Он предполагает изучение отдельных тем, не входящих в обязательную программу данного предмета. Содержание курса способствует общекультурному воспитанию учащихся.

    Основная цель курса - социокультурное образование средствами английского языка. Ведущими аспектами в овладении иноязычной культурой являются учебный, познавательный и воспитательный.

    Учебный аспект программы направлен на дальнейшее совершенствование навыков чтения, говорения, аудирования.

    Познавательный аспект программы направлен на знакомство учащихся с различными сторонами жизни Великобритании.

    Воспитательным аспектом является воспитание уважительного и толерантного отношения к другой культуре, более глубокое осознание своей родной культуры.

    Задачи курса:

    1. Создавать положительную мотивацию для дальнейшего обучения в гуманитарном профиле;
    2. Формировать представлений учащихся о национальных особенностях Великобритании;
    3. Формировать умения вести обсуждение по содержанию тем курса;
    4. Повышать информационную и коммуникативную компетентность учащихся;
    5. Создавать условия для развития проектной деятельности учащихся;
    6. Предоставлять возможность языковой практики учащимся, желающим продолжить обучение на гуманитарных факультетах вузов.

    Данный курс рассчитан на 8 учебных часов. Его краткосрочность позволяет учащимся сориентироваться в степени актуальности для себя дальнейшего углубленного гуманитарного образования в связи с его будущей профессиональной подготовкой. Данный курс предусматривает углубленное изучение английского языка, использование более широкого понятийного аппарата в целях осуществления иноязычного общения, в том числе и в профессионально ориентируемых ситуациях общения. При изучении данного курса осуществляется углубление гуманитарно-филологической подготовки учащихся.Курс построен с учётом программных требований к уровню владения английским языком на завершающей стадии базового образования


    Содержание образования.

    Тематический план.

    Название темы

    Кол-во часов

    Образовательный продукт

    Практические занятия

    1

    Дом англичанина - его крепость

    1

    Схема содержания в тетради

    2

    Британские праздники

    1

    Таблица праздников в тетради

    3

    Британская кухня

    1

    Беседа за чашкой чая  с кондитерскими изделиями по рецептамнациональной кухни Британии

    4

    Животный мир Великобритании

    1

    Краткий конспект в тетради

    5

    Растительный мирВеликобритании

    1

    Краткий конспект в тетради

    6

    Высшее образование в Великобритании

    1

    Схема – конспект в тетради

    7

    Просмотр фильма «Путешествие по Великобритании».

    1

    Краткие записи во время просмотра фильма

    Экскурсия в городской информационный молодёжный центр (отдел инз.)

    8

    Заключительное занятие. Защита проектов «Я хочу рассказать моим сверстникам о жизни Великобритании».

    1

    Проекты учащихся

    Выступление уч-ся перед всеми уч-ся 9 классов, изучающих англ. язык


    Содержание практических занятий.

    Занятие 1.

    Аудированиетекста (listeningforspecificinformation).

     HOUSE AND HOME

    There   is   no  place  like   home   

    (from  an old  English song).  About 80 per cent of British people live in houses. About 67 per cent of' the people in Britain own their own houses or flats. In towns there are three  main types of houses: detached, semi-detached and terraced. A detached house, standing on its own plot of land, is usually more expensive than the others. A semi-detached house is usually smaller than a detached house. Most of these houses have two storeys, with two rooms and a kitchen downstairs and the bedrooms and a bathroom upstairs. A terraced house (or terrace-house) is one of a row of houses, often built in blocks of four or more and sometimes extending the entire length of a street.

    Many people in Britain have no home at all, with the number of homeless increasing. The big cities, especially London, have a large number of such homeless people. One part of London's South Bank area has come to be called "Cardboard City" because of the many people living there in huts made from cardboard boxes.

    Many homes in Britain now have electrical and electronic aids and instruments that would have been unimaginable a quarter of a century ago. The percentage of British homes with various types of equipment such as television sets, washing machines, telephones, freezers (including fridgefreezers), videocassette recorders (VCRs), microwave ovens and personal computers is very high. Nearly seven homes out of ten also have a car, and the majority have a radio. Many homes contain more specialized equipment such as audio equipment (especially music centres, audio systems and compact disc players) and home computers (including word processors).

    Most British houses,even in towns, have a garden. Often there is a small flower garden at the front of the house and a larger garden at the rear, where flowers or vegetables are grown. Both front and back gardens often have lawn.

    Exercises:

    1. Explain  the  meaning  of  the  following  words  and  expressions

    - a  detached  house -...

    - a  semi-detached  house -...

    - a  terraced  house -...

    1. Fill  in  the  gaps  

    - A  semi-detached  house  is  usually.................than  a  detached  house.

    - Many  homes  contain  more  ..............

    - They  usually  have  a .............in  front  of  the  house.

    - The  gardens  often  have ...............

    III. Write the essay on this topic.


    Занятие 2.

    Reading for details.

    BRITISH HOLIDAYS

    Great Britain is famous for its old traditions. Some of them existed in ancient times and survived through centuries. Some of them appeared when Christianity came to the British Isles. 

    Pancake Day.  In the Middle Ages people on that day had fun and ate pancakes. The most common form of celebrating this day in the old times was the all town ball game or tug-of-war, in which everyone was tearing here and there, trying to get the ball or rope into their part of the city. Today the only custom that is observed throughout Britain is pancake eating. People eat lots of pancakes. These are made from flour, milk and eggs, and fried in a hot pan. 

    Easteris one of the most important holidays in Christianity. In England it’s a time for giving and receiving presents, mostly Easter eggs. We can say that the egg is the most popular emblem of Easter, but spring-time flowers are also used to stress the nature’s awakening. Nowadays there are a lot of chocolate Easter eggs, having some small gifts inside. But a real hard-boiled egg, decorated and painted in bright colours, still appears on breakfast tables on Ester Day, or it’s hidden in the house or garden for children to finny. In egg that is boiled really hard will last for years.

    Easter eggs. At Easter time, the British celebrate the idea of new birth by giving each other chocolate Easter eggs which are opened and eaten on Easier Sunday. On Good Friday bakers sell hot cross buns, which are toasted and eaten with butler. Easier Monday is a holiday and many people travel to the seaside for the day or go and watch one of the many sporting events, such as football or horse-racing.

     

    I'm in love ! On 14th February, St Valentine's Day, many people send a card to the one they love or someone whom they have fallen in love with. People usually do not sign these cards and a lot of time is spent trying to guess who has sent them! 

    Ghosts and witchesHallowe'en means 'holy evening', and takes place on 31st October. Although it is a much more important festival in the United States than Britain, it is celebrated by many people in the UK.

    It is particularly connected with witches and ghosts. At parties people dress up in strange costumes and pretend they are witches. They cut horrible faces in potatoes and other vegetables and put a candle inside, which shines through the eyes. 'People may play difficult games such as trying to eat an apple from a bucket of water without using their hands. 
        In recent years children dressed in white sheets knock on doors at Halloween and ask if you would like a 'trick' or 'treat'. If you give them something nice, a 'treat', they go away. However, if you don't they play a trick on you, such as making a lot of noise or spilling flour on your from doorstep!

    Task 1. Answerthequestions:

    1. What is Great Britain famous for?
    2. When did British traditions appear?
    3. What English holidays do you know?
    4. What English holiday do you like best?
    5. When do Englishmen eat lots of pancakes?

    Task 2. Describe the pictures

    Try to draw your own picture to illustrate one of the holidays.

    Show it to the other pupils and give your explanation.

    Task 3. Read the text "Ghosts and witches" and tell your mother about this holiday

    Usethefollowingexpressions:

    - on the 31st of October,

    - itisconnectedwith,

    - dress up in strange costumes,

    - pretendtheyarewitches,

    - horriblefaces,

    - to put a candle inside,

    - to play tricks on somebody.


    Занятие3.

    Jigsaw reading (4 groups).

    FOOD AND DRINK

    What is the Most Popular Food in Britain?

        Britain’s most popular "fast food" has got to be fish and chips. Fish and chip shops first made an appearance at the end of the 19th century and since then have been a firm favourite up and down the country. The dish is simplicity itself.: Fish  is dipped in a batter made from flour, eggs and water and then deep fried in hot fat. Chips are made from thick batons of potato and deep fried. Fish and chips are served over the counter wrapped in paper, and traditionalists prefer to eat them straight out of the paper because they taste better that way!

    The best-known British dish eaten at home has been roast beef, traditionally eaten on Sunday. The dish used to be so popular in England that the French still refer to the British as "les rosbifs"! Roast beef is served with roast potatoes, vegetables and gravy - a sauce made from meat juices and stock, thickened with flour. Yorkshire pudding  is a favourite accompaniment to roast beef.

    Why do the British Like Drinking Tea?

    Everything in Britain, says a popular song, stops for tea. It’s certainly true that tea is the most popular drink in Britain - far more popular than coffee. The Dutch brought the first tea to Europe in about 1610. By 1750 tea had become the principal drink of all the classes in Britain, yet at that time a pound of the cheapest tea cost about one-third of a skilled worker’s weekly wage! Tea was jealously guarded by the lady of the house, and kept in special containers called tea-caddies, often with a lock, and carefully doled out by the teaspoon.

    Gradually, tea-drinking developed into a fashionable social ritual and tea gardens blossomed  in London, where couples could stroll in the afternoon and enjoy a cup of tea with bread and butter and cakes. Tea parties were also popular at home, and soon the ritual of "afternoon tea" was firmly established. Today  the custom of tea-time continues, and it remains a feature of any cricket match or summer fête.

    High Tea is a more substantial evening meal, popular in northern England and Scotland. Most people in Britain prefer a rich, strong cup of tea with milk, and sugar is sometimes added to taste.

    What is Haggis?

    Haggis is Scotland’s best-known regional dish made from lamb’s offal (lungs, liver and heart) mixed with  onions, herbs and spices, all packed into a skin made of plastic, or, traditionally, a sheep’s stomach.

    The haggis is often accompanied by mashed potatoes and mashed swede or turnips. Although the haggis neither sounds nor looks appetising, most people brave enough to try it agree that it is extremely tasty!

    Is it True that a lot of British Dishes are Named After Places?

    Welsh cakes, a kind of sweet cake cooked on a griddle, were originally served to hungry travellers when they arrived at an inn for the night while they waited for their supper to be cooked.

    Предлагаемые задания:

        Учащиеся читают части текста по группам и выполняют предлагаемые учителем задания. При проверке выполненных заданий учащиеся всего класса слушают ответы и задают возникающие вопросы.

    Task 1 (group 1). Answer the questions:

    1. What is the most  popular British "fast food"?
    2. What is fish dipped in?
    3. What are chips made from?
    4. When do the British usually eat roast beef?
    5. What is roast beef served with?

    Task 2 (group 2). Tell about drinking tea in Britain. Usetheseexpressions:

    - tostopfortea

    - themostpopulardrink

    - the principle drink of all the classes

    - to cost one-third of a wage

    - fashionablesocialritual

    - bread, butter, cakes

    - teaparties

    - afternoontea

    - the custom of tea-time

    - hightea

    - strong cup of tea with milk and sugar

    Task 3 (group 3). Translate the text about haggis

    Task 4 (group 4). Agree or disagree:

    1.  Only some British regional cooking is reflected in the names of dishes.
    2.  Cheeses are produced in many regions.
    3.  A pastry case is filled with fruits.
    4.  A pastry case is traditional evening meal.
    5.  Welsh cakes were originally served to hungry travellers.


    Занятие4.

    Reading for specific information.

    ANIMALS

    Barn Owl 

    Barn owls live in open country with some trees for cover and nesting sites. They usually become active at dusk, when they can be seen flying low over the ground in a slow, wavering flight with occasional short glides.

     

    Grey Squirrel

    Their food consists of buds and shoots, nuts, seeds and fungi. Their sharp incisor teeth can very quickly cut a hole in a hazelnut shell which they hold in their forefeet. They then crack it open in a crowbar-like action to extract the kernel inside.

    They are popular with the public, especially in urban areas where they are among the most visible wild mammals.

    Hedgehog 

    The Hedgehog has a powerful forefoot and claws for digging for its favourite food of slugs and worms - they may eat 40 or more slugs a night. They can also climb, swim and can sprint a surprisingly fast 6 mph! If threatened they can roll up into a ball as protection against predators. Theirbiggestenemyapartfrommanisthebadger.

     

    Mole

    Moles are common throughout Britain, but rarely seen as they spend almost their entire time underground, only occasionally appearing above ground at the top of one of their characteristic molehills, and even then usually only the head and pink fleshy snout is revealed. Moles have a well developed sense of orientation retaining a mental plan of their complex layout of underground tunnels. The uniform texture of the fur allows it to lie in any direction, making it easier for the animal to reverse rapidly in the tunnels.

    Red deer

    Essentially a forest animal, but chiefly found in UK on the moorlands of Scotland and Devon. Gestation period is 9 months. A single calf is born in May or June and lies hidden in the undergrowth, well camouflaged, during the day for a week or so, when it will join the herd.

    Task 1.Answer the questions.

    1. What animals are active at night?
    2. Who is the first enemy of hedgehog?
    3. Who is their second enemy?
    4. What is favourite food of squirrels?
    5. What is favourite food of hedgehogs?

    Task 2. Make a digest of the texts.


    Занятие5.

    PLANTS IN BRITAIN

    Jigsaw reading (3 groups)

    Group 1.

    Plane trees are among the most numerous large streets and park trees planted in Greater London.  They belong to the genus Platanus, family Platanaceae.

    Plane trees in Battersea Park in midsummer

    The first plane trees planted in Britain were oriental planes, planted from about 1550. Most trees seen in London however belong to the group that is often described as the London Plane. Most plane trees seen will therefore be less than 300 years old. For suburban London, it should be safe to assume that the planting of planes took place with the urban development. Thus, most larger trees in London are likely to be from the 19th century.

     

     Tasks to the text:

    1. Readthetextwithouttranslation
    2. Answerthequestions:

    - When were the first plane trees planted?

    - What group do the most trees belong to?

    - How old are the plane trees?

    - What can you say about the planting of planes in suburban London?

    1. Speak about the plane trees.Use the questions as a plan.

    Group 2. Large trees

    The hybrid planes all form large trees. They probably differ somewhat in ultimate size. As they cannot be said to have reached old age yet, the ultimate sizes are not yet known. Mitchell suggests that as planes approaching 300 years old are still in full vigour, plane trees are likely to grow to be the biggest trees in southern Britain in the future. It is relevant that the oriental plane is often the largest native broadleaf tree in Western Asia and southern Europe, and the occidental plane holds the same position in the eastern USA. Both of these planes can have trunks with girth exceeding 12 meters (about 40 feet).

    There is a listing of large trees in Bean's Manual. Many of the other largest specimens are in central London, in the Royal Parks and in some of the old squares. Among the other large ones are those in Kenwood in Hampstead, and in Ravensbury Park, Morden, and several in Kew Gardens.

    Taskstothetext:

    1. Work in pairs: ask questions to each other including the following words:

    - hybridplanes;

    - 300 yearsold;

    - southernBritain;

    - theorientalplane;

    - 12 meters;

    - thelargestspeciments;

    1. Give the main idea of the text in Russian

    Group 3. Bark, trunks, and expanding boles

    Planes are known for their flaking bark. This is useful in shedding pollutants that may interfere with air reaching the trunk, and is one of the reasons why the tree has been so succesful in London during the periods of serious air pollution. As bark falls off in patches, it leaves a trunk dappled in various colours, including usually buff where bark has just fallen off, otherwise brownish to grey patches. On younger branches most of the bark is rapidly shed at a time, giving them a distinctive pale colour that darkens over time. Older bark can remain on the tree trunk long enough to grow some algae or lichens even in London nowadays, and this can give the trunk a greenish colouring. Smaller fragments of bark can be shed in little plates, sometimes leaving depressions on the trunk that looks as if they have been scooped out with a table spoon.

    Swollen boles on trees at Kennington Park

    Some mature or older trees have trunks that are much swollen compared with the rest of the tree. Typically these trunks are covered in what looks like masses of old dark fissured bark, and it may be that much of the girth is due to the bark rather than the wood. It may be also that this only happens in some species and clones; the trees I have seen this occur in appear to be Pyramidalis or a similar clone. It may be that the behaviour is connected to the formation of burrs on the trunk.

    The bark of some forms stops flaking off freely from older wood. This is especially noticeable on the oldest wood at the base of the tree trunk. It then becomes fissured and darker coloured there, and no longer has the distinctive appearance of plane tree bark. This effect may be related to the vigour of the tree. The dark colouring is probably due to the collection of dirt particles and pollutants on the persistent bark. A few trees do not produce flaking bark even on young wood. Whether these behaviours are due to the genetic makeup of the tree or environmental conditions is not known.

    Taskstothetexts:

    1. Workin 3 groups:

    - Readthetexts;

    - Make the plans to the texts;

    - Retell the texts,according to your plans

    Finaltest

    1. Correctthesentences:

    - The largest trees were planted in the 18th century.

    - Plain trees are likely to grow to be the biggest trees in Western Britain.

    - Smaller fragments of bark can be shed in big plates.  

    1. Give the Russian equivalents to the underlined sentences
    2. Write about plane trees in Britain (5-6 sentences).


    Занятие 6.

    Reading for the main idea.

    HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN

    Nowadays there are about forty universities in Great Britatin, almost every big city of the country has a university. British Universities aim to give their students the highest type of education and training and to enable them to carry out scientific research work. After completing a course of four or five years a university graduate gets the Bachelor's Degree of Science, Medicine, Arts, etc. Liter he can continue his studies and research and defend a thesis to get Master's of Doctor's Degree. A University usually consist of some colleges, which are part of the University. All educational institutions differ from each other in tradition, size, teaching methods. Oxford and Cambrige are the oldest ones. They have a very high reputation all over the world, and many students from different countries come to study there. Each student of Oxford and Cambridge has a tutor who helps the student to plan and organize his work, to select reading materials and to prepare for his degree in the best possible way. A student selects several subjects for his studies and regularly writes essays and other works on them and presents them to his tutor for correction and discussion at their regular meetings.

    Besides Universities, there are about three hundred technical colleges and polytechnical schools in Great Britatin. Their course is shorter and their graduates get diplomas instead of degrees.

    The academic year consists of three terms of eight to ten weeks each, and between the terms the students have their vacations.

    TASKS AND QUESTIONS

    1. How many universities are there in Great Britain?

    2. What do British Universities aim to?

    3. How long is a University course?

    4. What degrees can one get?

    5. What educational institutions do you know in Great Britatin? Name some of them.

    6. Who helps the student to plan & organize his work?

    7. How many terms does the academic year consist of?


    Cambridge

    Cambridge is the second oldest university city in Great Britain after Oxford. Cambridge is on the river Cam and takes its name from this river. There are twenty-nine collegesin Cambridge. A large part of the population of the city are teachers and students. All students have to live in Cambridge while they studythere. In the streets of Cambridge you can see many young men wearing dark blue or black clothes and black square caps. The tradition goes back to the old times when the students had to wear dark clothes. They could not play games or sing songs and dance in those days, they could not fish either.

    Many great men have studied at Cambridge: Cromwell, Newton, Byron, Darwin and others. The great Russian scientist I. P. Pavlov came to Cambridge in 1912 to receive the degree of Honorary Doctor of Cambridge. The students made him a present of a toy dog.

    Cambridge is known all over the world. Many famous scientists worked there: Rutherford, Kapitza and others.

    Answer the questions:

    1. Where is Cambridge?

    2. How many colleges are there at Cambridge?

    3. What  kind   of  clothes  do  the   students  at  Cambridge wear?

    4. What great men studied at Cambridge?

    5. Why did I. P. Pavlov come to Cambridge in 1912?


    Список литературы.

    1. Богородицкая В. Н. Мир Британии. - Учебник для X - XI классов по английскому языку, М.: Просвещение, 1999.
    2. Никитенко - Попова 3. Н. Курс страноведения в X - XI классах. - М.: Просвещение, 2001.
    3. Томахин Г. Д. Язык и культура Великобритании. - М.: Просвещение, 1999-2002.

    а)        часть III «Лондон»

    б)        часть IV «Кто есть кто в Великобритании»

    в)        часть V «Дом англичанина - его крепость»

    г)        часть VI «Будни и отдых Британцев»

    1. К проблеме профильного обучения иностранным языкам на старшей ступени полной средней школы. — стр. 8—14, «ИЯШ» № 6/04.
    2. Рефлексивный компонент деятельности как необходимое условие развития учителя и учащихся. - Соколова Л. А., стр. 19 - 26, «ИЯШ» № 1/05.


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