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    Презентация The Four Types of Essays (ЕГЭ)
    презентация к уроку по английскому языку (11 класс) на тему

    Презентация The Four Types of Essays (ЕГЭ)

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    “ For and Against” Essays Opinion Essays Providing Solutions to Problems Essays Discursive Essays The Four Types of Essays

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    “ For and Against” Essay This essay is a formal piece of writing in which a topic is considered from opposing points of view ( it gives advantages and disadvantages )

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    “ For and Against” Essay The Structure 1. Introduction Paragraph 1 2. Main Body Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 3. Conclusion Paragraph 4 (Final Paragraph)

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    Introduction State the topic (talk generally about the topic without giving your opinion )

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    Main Body Paragraph 2 (arguments for) Paragraph 3 (arguments against)

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    Conclusion Paragraph 4 (Final Paragraph) Give either your opinion or a balanced consideration of the topic

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    Your Opinion or Balanced Consideration of the Topic? (1) Your Opinion: “ To sum up, getting married has, to my mind ( in my view, in my opinion ), more advantages than disadvantages. After all, what can be more fulfilling than a steady relationship with the person you love that lasts for the rest of your life?” “ All things considered, it seems to me that buying a pet should be a carefully planned decision. If you are fully aware of your pet’s needs and all the responsibilities involved in owning one, than having a pet can be a very rewarding experience”.

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    Your Opinion or Balanced Consideration of the Topic? (2) Balanced consideration of the topic: “ To conclude, by looking after animals and helping them to breed, zoos play an important part in protecting many species from becoming extinct. Therefore, the negative aspects of keeping animals in captivity are balanced out by the positive ones”. “ Taking everything into account, there are both advantages and disadvantages in keeping pets. In the end it is up to the individual to decide whether the pleasure associated with owning a pet is worth the work that goes with it”.

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    POINTS TO CONSIDER You can express your opinion only in the final paragraph ; In the main body your arguments (points) must be supported with justification (i.e. reasons or examples ); Do not use informal style ( short forms, colloquial language , etc.) Begin each paragraph with a topic sentence which summarises what the paragraph is about .

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    Arguments (points) and Justification Argument “ One advantage of using a word processor is that it saves time”. Justification “ It is much quicker to make corrections on one than it is to do them by hand”.

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    Topic Sentences Paragraph 2 (arguments for) One of the main advantages of… One of the main arguments for… One major advantage of … One point of view in favour of smth. is … The main (greatest) advantages of … is … To begin/start with; First of all; Firstly, etc .

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    Topic Sentences Paragraph 3 (arguments against) However, there are disadvantages to (doing smth.). On the other hand, doing smth. certainly has some disadvantages (drawbacks, negative aspects). One point of view against smth. is … Secondly, …

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    Topic Sentences Paragraph 4 (closing paragraph) All in all, … To sum up, … All things considered, … In conclusion, … To conclude, … On the whole, … Taking everything into account, … As was previously stated, …

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    Linking Words and Phrases (1) To list points : In the first place, First of all, To begin/start with, Secondly, Thirdly, Finally, Last but not least.

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    Linking Words and Phrases (2) To add more points to the same topic : What is more, In addition (to this / that), Furthermore, Also, Apart from this / that, Not to mention the fact that, There is another side to the issue / question / argument of …

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    Linking Words and Phrases (3) To make contrasting points : On the other hand, / However, / In spite of, / Nevertheless, / Despite, / Yet, / Still, / But, / Even so, / Even though, / Although, / While … or / and it can be argued / said / claimed that … others (many people) oppose / strongly disagree … many experts (scientists, sceptics, critics) claim / feel / believe that this argument is incorrect / misguided. the fact that … contradicts the belief / idea that … while it is true to say that …, in fact …

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    Linking Words and Phrases (4) To introduce examples : For example, For instance, Like, Especially, Such as, In particular / Particularly; This is (clearly) illustrated / shown by the fact that … One / A clear / striking / typical example of …. The fact that … shows / illustrates that …

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    Linking Words and Phrases (5) To emphasise a point: clearly, obviously, naturally, of course, needless to say, indeed. To express reality: in fact, the matter (fact) is, actually, in practice, in effect. To make general statements: as a rule, generally, in general, on the whole, by and large. To make partially correct statements: to a certain extent / degree, in a way / sense, this is partly true (but), there is some truth in (this), in some cases, up to a point. To explain / clarify a point: in other words, that is to say, this/which means that.

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    Techniques for beginnings The first paragraph may : make reference to a strange scene or situation; address the reader directly; ask a rhetorical question; start with a quotation.

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    Techniques for endings The last paragraph may : state a personal opinion; give the reader something to consider; end with a quotation. Let’s have some practice on the techniques!!!

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    “ DO’s” and “DON’Ts” in ‘For and Against’ Essays (1) “ DO’s” Formal style; Well-developed paragraphs; Justification of arguments; Quotations; Generalisations; Reference to specific statistics; Opinion only in the last paragraph.

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    “ DO’s” and “DON’Ts” in ‘For and Against’ Essays (2) “ DON’Ts” Informal style and short forms; One sentence paragraphs; Overgeneralisations; Personal examples; Opinion in the first paragraph or in the main body; Blind use of statistics. Let’s have some practice!

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    Opinion Essay This essay is a formal piece of writing . It requires your opinion on a topic, which must be clearly stated , giving various viewpoints on the topic supported by reasons and/or examples. You should also include the opposing viewpoint in another paragraph.

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    Opinion Essay The Structure 1. Introduction Paragraph 1 2. Main Body Paragraph 2 ( viewpoint 1 and reason ) Paragraph 3* ( viewpoint 2 and reason ) Paragraph 4 ( opposing viewpoint and reason ) 3. Conclusion Paragraph 4 (Final Paragraph) * You may include more viewpoints, and therefore more paragraphs in the main body.

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    Introduction State the topic (talk generally about the topic giving your opinion )

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    Main Body It may consist of several paragraphs. Paragraphs 1-2 (3,4) ( your viewpoints 1-2 (3,4) and reasons ) Paragraph with opposing viewpoint and its reason ). You should also give your reason why you think your opponents’ viewpoint is unconvincing .

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    Conclusion Final Paragraph Restate your opinion using different words.

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    POINTS TO CONSIDER First decide whether you agree or disagree with the subject of the topic, then make a list of your viewpoints and reasons. Think about the opposing viewpoint and reason. Write well-developed paragraphs consisting of more than one sentence . Begin each paragraph with a topic sentence . Linking words should be used throughout your essay. Use the techniques to begin or end your essay.

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    Let’s have some practice! Exercise 3. Exercise 4. Exercise 7.


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