Страдательный залог. Методическая разработка
методическая разработка (английский язык) на тему

Поэтапное введение грамматического материала для учеников 6 -7классов с упражнениями для отработки и закрепления навыка.


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                              ILLUSTRATIVE  SITUATION

     Look here. What a strange letter I have in my hands. The letter has a very interesting story. I’ll tell you about it.

     A shark was killed in the sea by sailors and a bottle with this letter was found in the shark. The letter was given to me by the captain of the ship because it was written in English and the captain didn’t know English. I think that it was written in America, then it was thrown into the ocean. It was swallowed by a shark and in this way I got it.

     There are only a few words in it but they cannot be made out. I wonder who the letter was written by.

     What was written in the letter?

     When was the letter written?


     We form the Passive with the verb TO BE and the PAST PARTICIPLE of the main verb.

     We use the Passive when we want to show that the action of the verb is more important than the person who carries out the action.

Affirmative sentences:

     English and German are taught in our school.

     A new play was staged by the pupils of our school.

     The tape-recorder will be repaired by John.

     The bedrooms are being decorated now.

     The portable colour TV sets have already been sold.

Negative sentences:

     Mr. Higgins is not expected today.

     The bridge was not yet constructed.

     My work will not be finished at 5.

     The entrance hall is not being redecorated.

     The windows have not been broken and the door has not been forced.

General questions:

     Is the treaty signed?

     Were you invited to the party?

     Will the students be examined in spring?

     Is a new bath being installed?

     Have the telephone wires been cut?

Special questions:

     How is she being trained for a nurse?

     Where is this book sold?

     When was the doctor sent for? Why hasn’t the car been repaired yet?


EXERCISE 1. Express your agreement as in the model.


   Model. – The bridge was built last year.

  1. Yes, you’re right. The bridge was built last year.

  1. My bicycle was broken.
  2. The library was closed that day.
  3. The excursion was well organised.
  4.  The delegation was met at the station.
  5. This little poem was written by Kate.
  6. Many valuable things were destroyed by the fire.
  7. John was taught French at school.
  8. The film is much spoken about.
  9. The old textbooks are still used.
  10. The children will be washed, given supper and sent to bed.

EXERCISE 2. Say that the action is (was, will be) done at other time or any other place.

   Model. – The letters were posted in the morning.

  1. Oh, no, they were posted in the afternoon.

  1. The question was discussed at the English lesson.
  2. The coat was bought last month.
  3. The book was written in 1968.
  4. The museum was opened in August.
  5. The meeting was organised on Saturday.
  6. The telegram was sent on Sunday.
  7. The trees were planted in spring.
  8. The children will be sent to school.
  9. Coffee will be served in the dining-room.
  10. This article will be published in the local newspaper.

EXERCISE 3. Say that it is (was, will be) done by another person.

   Model. – At the station you were met by Mr Gregg.

  1. Oh, no, we were met by Mr Green.

  1. The cup was broken by my brother.
  2. The dishes were washed up by mother.
  3. The documents were signed by the secretary.
  4. The telegram was sent by his brother.
  5. The floors were washed by Jane.
  6. The first prize was won by Barbara.
  7. The medicine was prescribed by Doctor Mason.
  8. The lecture will be given by Professor West.
  9. The excursion is organised by our teacher of literature.
  10. When Helen was ill she was looked after by a nurse.

EXERCISE 4. Say that some other actions were also done in these situations. Use the suggested words.

   Model. – An excursion was organised by our pupils. (concert)

  1. A concert was also organised by them.

  1. Trees were planted near our house. (flowers)
  2. The floor was washed by Jane. (windows)
  3. Sounds of music are heard in the hall. (laughter)
  4. A new metro line was constructed in our town. (bridge)
  5. The TV was repaired by John. (radio set)
  6. Tom was criticised at the meeting. (Alice)
  7. This article was written by Jane. (poem)
  8. The carpet was cleaned by mother. (rug)
  9. We were shown the Tower of London. (the British Museum)
  10. During the holidays the children were taken to the zoo. (to the circus)

EXERCISE 5. Say that the action is not (was not, will not be) done and explain why.

   Model. – A new dress was bought for Jane.

  1. No, a new dress was not bought, we didn’t have enough money.

  1. Mike was sent to Moscow.
  2. She was given a good mark.
  3. The doctor is sent for.
  4. The electric fire in my room was repaired.
  5. The flowers were watered in the morning.
  6. Her brother was sent to the kindergarten.
  7. The New Year tree was decorated by Granny.
  8. The books were prepared for the lesson.
  9. The letters will be delivered in the morning.
  10. The guests were invited to the garden.

EXERCISE 6. Answer the following questions.

   Model. – When was America discovered?

  1. America was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492.

  1. When was the first spaceship launched?
  2. When was the Tower of London built?
  3. Where is English spoken?
  4. Where are meals cooked?
  5. Where is milk kept in the summer?
  6. Who was radio invented by?
  7. When was St Petersburg founded?
  8. How many foreign languages are taught at your school?
  9. When was your school built?
  10. What is being built in your district now?

EXERCISE 7. Say that the action has been already done.

   Model. – The road is too narrow. You must widen it.

  1. But the road has already been widened.

  1. Somebody must send for the doctor.
  2. You must air the room.
  3. You must type the text on page 10.
  4. You must water the kitchen garden.
  5. You must help mother to wash the dishes.
  6. You must post this letter to John.
  7. You must plant the flowers near the house.
  8. I think you must clear out the garage.
  9. You must punish the boy for being rude.
  10. You must send a letter of thanks to your friend.

EXERCISE 8. Say that the action hasn’t been done. Use the suggested words.

   Model. – Let’s go to Mike’s birthday. (invite)

  1. How can we? We haven’t been invited.

  1. Put on you new suit. (iron)
  2. Can you give me Shakespeare’s sonnets? (return)
  3. Can you lend me two dollars? (receive)
  4. Let’s look through today’s newspapers. (deliver)
  5. Why is Mary so sad? (praise)
  6. Can we listen to text 10? (record)
  7. Let’s play the piano. (tune)
  8. Does the patient feel better? (operate on)
  9. Can I take your bicycle? (repair)
  10. Do you know where Fred is? (find)

EXERCISE 9. Answer the questions as in the model.

   Model. – Are they still restoring the church?

  1. Yes, the church is still being restored.

  1. Is the doctor still examining David?
  2. Is Kate still washing the dishes?
  3. Are the police still questioning the prisoner?
  4. Are they still building a new bridge over the river?
  5. Is John still repairing the car?
  6. Are the children still decorating the New Year tree?
  7. Are they still using this room as a library?
  8. Is Mary still polishing the floor?
  9. Is John still painting the walls in the kitchen?
  10.  Is the secretary still typing the documents?

EXERCISE 10. Express your surprise as in the model.

   Model. – The dinner was cooked by father.

  1. Was it really cooked by father?
  2. Yes, it was. (No, it wasn’t.)

  1. The windows were washed by the boys.
  2. This book was published in the last century.
  3. The floor in the classroom was swept by the teacher.
  4. The exercises were done orally.
  5. Jane was taught French at school.
  6. Tommy was criticised a lot.
  7. An English play was staged by pupils of our school.
  8. The man was operated on by Professor Brown.
  9. The phone was answered by the director himself.
  10. All these stamps were collected by one pupil.

EXERCISE 11. Ask when or where it was done.

   Model. – St.Petersburg was founded by Peter I.

  1. When was it founded?
  2. In the 18th century.

  1. This novel was translated in to Russian.
  2. The flowers were planted by younger pupils.
  3. Al the important documents were lost.
  4. The money was given to me by Mr. Brown.
  5. The firemen were already sent for.
  6. The competition was held yesterday.
  7. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
  8. Jane will certainly be forgiven.
  9. The will be learned during the lesson.

EXERCISE 12. Ask for additional information as in the model. Use the suggested words.

   Model. – The article was translated into English. (by whom)

  1. By whom was it translated?
  2. By John Webber.

  1. She was given a flat in this house. (on what floor)
  2. Mary was punished by her father. (what…for)
  3. Tom was taught two languages. (when)
  4. The announcement was listened to with great attention. (why)
  5. The teacher will explain everything to you. (when)
  6. The typist has already been paid for her work. (by whom)
  7. The room will be thoroughly cleaned after lunch. (by whom)
  8. His leg was hurt in an accident. (when)
  9. The dog was left in the garden. (why)
  10. The Tower of London was once used as a prison. (when)

EXERCISE 13.Translate the following.

  1. Во время войны все документы были утеряны.
  2. Джон был оштрафован за то, что перешел здесь улицу.  
  3. Эта работа будет закончена вечером.
  4. Выставка уже открыта?
  5. Что вам подарили на день рождения?
  6. Во время войны в Петербурге было разрушено много зданий; большинство из них восстановлено. Сейчас строится много новых кварталов.
  7. Через месяц ему предложат какую-нибудь работу.
  8. Кем была переведена эта книга?
  9. Какой иностранный язык преподают в вашей школе?
  10. Какие английские пьесы будут поставлены школьным театром?

EXERCISE 14. Speak on the following points.

  1. Describe a well-known castle (palace, church, etc.)
  2. Say how your friend’s birthday was celebrated.
  3. Describe the geographical position of Great Britain.
  4. Describe the geographical position of the USA.

EXERCISE 15. Memorize the following proverbs and rhymes.

  1. Rome was not built in a day.
  2. What is done cannot be undone.
  3. A tree is known by its fruit.
  4. Don’t count your chicken before they are hatched.
  5. A bold head is soon shaven.
  6. A green wound is soon healed.
  7. Old birds are not caught with chaff.
  8. The devil is not as black as it is painted.

                              GOOD ADVICE

                 All that you do

                 Do with your might;

                 Things which are done by halves,

                 Are never done right.

                               *    *    *

                 If a thing is once begun,

                 Never leave it

                 Till it’s done.

                               *    *    *

                 Hector Protector was dressed all in green;

                 Hector Protector was sent to the Queen.

                 The Queen did not like him,

                 No more did the King;

                 So Hector Protector was sent back again.

EXERCISE 16. Read the following jokes. Retell them.


                          KINGS ARE SCARCE

     George I of England while on a journey to his native kingdom stopped at a village in Holland. While fresh horses were being got ready for him, the king asked for two or three eggs. They were brought to him, and the price that was asked was a hundred florins.

     “How is this?” asked the King. “Eggs are surely scarce here.” “Pardon me,” said the host. “Eggs are plentiful enough but kings are scarce here.”

                          A TRAVELLER’S TALE

     This story was told by Charles Dickens.

     During a sea-trip on board a steamer a young girl was courted by five young men. The poor thing was at a loss, whom she should choose. She was advised to jump overboard and then marry the one who would jump in after her. The girl did as she was told. The next morning when all the five admirers were on deck, the girl jumped into the sea. She was immediately followed by four of the men. When the girl and the admirers had been fished out of water she found herself even more at a loss than before.

     “What should I do with those four wet men?” she asked the captain in her perplexity.

     “Take the dry one,” was the old sea-wolf’s advice.

                              MAKING SURE

     In the early days of World War I an officer in charge of a British port situated in Africa received a message from his chief. The message said that the war had been declared and all the enemies should be arrested in his district. A few days later the chief received a message from his officer. It ran: “Seven Germans, three Belgians, four Spaniards, five French men and an American are arrested. Please, inform us with whom our country is at war.”

EXERCISE 17. Listen to the story and write it down.

                          THE STRANGE DOCTOR.

     A man and his wife were motoring along a strange country road in New England to keep a dinner engagement. They were late, so the husband was driving at top speed. In spite of this he noticed a large house in bad repair with a sign announcing that a doctor lived there.

     Half a mile further on, he met with an accident. His car was broken. The driver was unhurt but his wife was seriously injured. The husband was desperate. Desperately, he remembered the doctor’s sign half a mile away. Taking his unconscious wife in his arms, he walked back to this house and rang the bell. The bell was answered by a tall grey-haired man who said he was a doctor. There was no one else in the house. The room looked as if it hadn’t been tidied for a long time. The woman was carried into a dusty, disordered consulting room and laid on the operating table. The doctor examined her with evident skill and declared that her scull was fractured and she was to be operated on immediately. The husband had no choice. He was told to wait outside.

     Pacing the porch, occasionally looking from the darkness into the lighted room, the husband heard steps and was shocked at the sight of three men. Two of them were armed and the third was carrying a rope. They were advancing slowly towards the door.

     “For God’s sake, wait!” the husband begged. “My wife’s scull has been opened; and delay must mean her certain death.”

     Whispering, one of the men asked: “What do you take us for?”


     “No,” the man answered. “We are the attendants from a neighbouring insane asylum. The man operating on your wife is mad. He escaped only two hours ago.”

     The husband did not let the three men interrupt the operation. He knew that she could be saved only by an immediate operation and there was a chance that a mad doctor could operate from force of habit. The three men agreed to wait until the operation was over. When the operation was completed, they sprang upon the madman, who fighting and screaming, was taken away. The headkeeper promised to bring back doctors and nurses which he did.

     The wife was taken to New York, where she was placed in a hospital, under the care of a prominent physician. Carefully examining her fractured scull, this doctor said: “Your wife will get well and be perfectly normal again, but I can’t understand it! Only one operation I know could have saved her and only one man ever performed that operation successfully. That doesn’t explain anything, because the particular man went mad years ago and was placed in an asylum somewhere in New England.”


                  ПО ТЕМЕ


                              СОСТАВИТЕЛИ:   КРИВЕЦ В.Д.


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