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    Материал для подготовки к ЕГЭ (ГИА) по английскому языку (11 класс) по теме:
    Подготовка к написанию эссе (в рамках подготовки к ЕГЭ)

    Шевандо Наталья Николаевна

    Материал содержит практические рекомендации по написанию эссе - выражение своего мнения и эссе "за" и "против", а также упражнения по закреплению навыков написания письменной части ЕГЭ.

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    Различные пути в подготовке учащихся к написанию сочинения

    (в формате ЕГЭ)

    Часть 2 –написание сочинения

    .

       Тип сочинения и примерный план

             Introduction

              Main Body

              Conclusion

    1 ‘For’ and ‘Against’  essays

    (formal style)

    § 1

    -present the topic and state the problem

    -make a general remark about it without giving your opinion

    § 2,3

    -Arguments “for”( 3 points)

    -Arguments “against”(3 points)

    (support your arguments with examples)

    § 4

    - your opinion based on the given arguments

    2.Opinion essays

    (formal style)

    § 1

    - introduce the subject and state your opinion

    § 2-4 –  or more paragraphs

    - first viewpoint supported by reasons/ examples

    -second viewpoint supported by reasons/ examples

    - the opposing viewpoint supported by reasons/ examples

    § 5

    - summarise what you’ve said

    -restate your opinion using  different words

    Useful Language   (FOR  and AGAINST essay)

    1. Introduction ( state the topic /problem ,  you talk generally about the topic, you may ask a question or start with a quotation)
    • As a general rule…….  
    • It is popularly believed that……..      
    •  It is often suggested…….
    • People often claim that…….
    • A lot of people think that……..
    • Many people are in favour of…… /    are convinced that…..
    • We all know that…
    • Can you imagine …….?  
    • Isn’t it amazing……..?    
    • Have you ever thought of….?        
    • Isn’t it strange…?
    • There are both advantages and disadvantages ………..
    • Let’s begin with………

         II.    Main Body (points FOR and AGAINST , along with your justification, appear in two separate

    paragraphs)

    • To introduce points
    • The main / most important / greatest advantage of……is that……  
    • Another advantage/ disadvantage of……              
    • A further advantage/ disadvantage of……
    • One point of view in favour of / against…          
    • The best/ worst thing about……is………
    • To list points
    • In the first place…        
    • First of all………          
    • To start with…      
    • To begin with…
    • Secondly…      
    • Thirdly……          
    • Finally………                
    • Last but not least………
    • To add more points to the same topic
    • What is more…              
    • Furthermore …….                    
    • Moreover………        
    • In addition to this….                
    • Besides………                      
    • Apart from this……….
    • To make contrasting points
    • on the other  hand ……
    • however……
    •  in spite of the fact that ………
    • despite the fact that………
    •  while……
    • nevertheless…
    • even though……
    •  although….
    •  it can be argued that………
    • To introduce examples
    • for example………
    • for instance…
    • such as……..
    • in particular…………

        III.  Conclusion ( you give either your opinion or a balanced consideration of the topic, or give the  

    reader something to consider, or to end with a quotation)

    • To conclude
    • to sum up……..
    • all in all …........
    • on the whole……….
    •  in conclusion ………
    • taking everything into account………/ as was previously stated
    • All things considered , although there are some disadvantages……..,
    • I believe it is…….
    • All in all, I believe that there are more advantages than disadvantages…..

    Useful Language   (OPINION  essay)

    1. Introduction ( state the topic/ problem  ; you may ask a question or start with a quotation; state your opinion)
    • state the topic /problem
    • -Is too much emphasis placed on……?
    • Nowadays, we are often told ……
    • Every day…                          
    • There is no doubt that……..
    • Over the past few years,…….  
    • Are you among those who……..?  
    • Why has……become…?
    • -The British poet…once said that “….”
    • There are various facts that support this opinion.
    • To express opinion
    • In my opinion………          
    • I believe……….
    • It seems to me……  
    • The way I see it……..

         II.    Main Body (each paragraph should present a separate viewpoint supported by your reason, another  paragraph should present the opposing viewpoint)

    • To list points
    • In the first place…        
    • First of all………        
    •  To start with…      
    • To begin with…
    • Secondly…      
    • Thirdly……          
    • Finally………                
    • Last but not least………
    • To add more points to the same topic
    • What is more…              
    •  Furthermore …….                    
    • Moreover………        
    • In addition to this….                
    • Besides………                    
    •  Apart from this……….
    • To introduce  contrasting viewpoints
    • It is argued that…….
    • People argue that…….
    • Opponents of this view say ………
    • There are people who oppose………          
    • Contrary to what most believe……….
    • To introduce examples
    • for example………
    • for instance…
    • such as……..
    • in particular…………

        III.  Conclusion ( you restate your opinion using different words)

    • To conclude
    • to sum up……..
    •  all in all ………..
    • all things considered…....
    • on the whole……….
    •  in conclusion ………
    •  taking everything into account………/ as was previously stated
    • All in all, I still feel that the benefits of ……..outweigh the disadvantages.

    Примеры упражнений для подготовки учащихся к  написанию эссе.

                                   

    Exercise 1.  from Successful Writing –Upper Intermediate, Virginia Evans, Express Publishing

     Read the closing paragraphs below and say whether they express a balanced consideration or the writer's opinion.

    Key: 1,2,5-writers opinion       3,4,6-balanced consideration

    1. In conclusion, getting married has, to my mind, more advantages than disadvantages. After all, what can be more fulfilling than a steady relationship with the person you love that lasts for the rest of your life?
    2. To sum up, camping holidays do have advantages, the main one being that they are far cheaper than other holidays. In my opinion, however, there is too much hard work involved for them to ever feel like a real holiday.
    3. To conclude, by looking after animals and helping them to breed, zoos play an important part in protecting many species from becoming extinct. Therefore, the negative aspects of keeping animals in captivity are balanced out by the positive ones.
    4.  All in all, computers have both advantages   and   disadvantages. They may have replaced humans in many jobs, but they have also made our lives considerably easier, and it is now difficult to imagine life without them.
    5.  On the whole, while most people go on holiday to rest, this is one thing you are unlikely to do on an adventure holiday. In my opinion, this disadvantage outweighs all the advantages associated with this kind of holiday.
    6. Taking everything into account, there are both advantages and disadvantages in keeping pets. In the end it is up to the individual to decide whether the pleasure associated with owning a pet is worth the work that goes with it.

    Exercise 2. from Successful Writing –Upper Intermediate, Virginia Evans, Express Publishing

     Put these jumbled sentences in the correct order. Then write them out in two separate paragraphs, one including all the advantages, the other all the disadvantages. Finally, write a suitable beginning and ending for this topic.                          

    Key: 1E,2B,3D,4G,5A,6F,7H,8C

                                                                   Package holidays: Good or Bad?

    A  However, there are disadvantages to going on a package holiday.

    В  То start with, package holidays are cheaper than travelling on your own, as the price includes the air fare and hotel accommodation.

    С Another negative aspect is that as you have paid for your accommodation in advance, you often feel obliged to stay in that  place rather than move around and explore.

    D Furthermore, the brochures from which most people select a package holiday usually give you a good idea of what the resort  offers, therefore reducing the chances of disappointment.

    E  Package holidays have several advantages.

    F  In the first place, as package holidays are less expensive, the hotel is unlikely to be top-class.

    G Last but not least, when visiting a new place it is often much easier to have all the details arranged in advance as it can be rather confusing to plan everything by yourself.

    H Also package holiday destinations are usually popular tourist resorts, thus there is little opportunity to experience the true culture of the country   you are visiting

    Exercise 3. from Successful Writing –Intermediate, Virginia Evans, Express Publishing

          Underline the correct linking word/phrase. Key: 1-besides 2-argue that 3-in favour of 4-even though 5-for instance

    1. Besides/Despite, television affects the way we think.
    2. Many people are against/argue that we need advertisements in order to keep up to date with the latest products on the market.
    3. One point of view against/in favour of travelling is that it allows you to meet people from different cultures.
    4. Even though/Nevertheless most people nowadays use a computer at work, it will be a while before we stop putting our ideas down on paper.
    5.  For instance/Still, people who know how to play a musical instrument are usually popular and make friends more easily than others.

    Exercise 4.  from Reading & Writing Targets 3, Virginia Evans- Jenny Dooley, Express Publishing

     Read the opinions about motorcycles and match them to their justification. Which are points for motorcycles and which are against? Key: 1b 2f 3e 4a 5c 6d            for:1,4,6     against:2,3,5

    Arguments

    1   They are very  convenient.            

    2  You can't travel with your friends.        

    3  They aren't as safe as cars.            

    4  They are cheaper   to run than cars.  

    5  They can be quite uncomfortable.    

    6  You can get to your destination quickly and easily.          

    Justifications

    a .They use less fuel and need fewer expensive repairs.

    b. You don't need to rely on public transport, and you can park them easily.

    с . You can't sit back and relax on them and you're exposed in bad weather.

    d They travel as fast as cars and you never get stuck in traffic jams.

    e You aren't well protected and you can get badly hurt if you fall off.

    f There's only room for one passenger.

    Exercise 5.  from  Reading & Writing Targets 3, Virginia Evans- Jenny Dooley, Express Publishing

    Which of these sentences express the opinion given in the heading, and which express the opposing point of view?

    Key: 1,2,4,6-opinion given in the heading           3,5-opposing point of view

    "Having a pet is good for you."

    1    In my opinion, owning a pet teaches children to become responsible adults.

    2    In addition, a pet can be amusing.

    3    However, pets need a lot of care and attention.

    4    What is more, certain pets can be useful if you train them properly.    .

    5    On the other hand, pets can be a nuisance.

    6    Firstly, a pet can |e good company.

    Exercise 6  from Reading & Writing Targets 3, Virginia Evans- Jenny Dooley, Express Publishing

      Match  the   viewpoints  to   the   reasons.   Is each point for watching TV, or against?

    Key: 1B (for), 2C (for), 3A (against)

                              Viewpoint

    1 TV can be educational.

    2 TV provides cheap entertainment.

    3 TV can have a negative influence on children.

                                 Justification

    A   - encourages crime, makes violence look exciting

    В   - shows fascinating documentaries (nature/wildlife),  keeps us informed

         about world events,  covers international sports events

    С   - can watch variety of films and programmes at home,  cheaper than going to the cinema

    Example:   You have 40 minutes to do this task.

    Comment on the following statement.

    Fast food is very popular and saves time for busy working people. However, many experts say that it is not completely healthy.

    What can you say for and against fast food?   Write 200-250 words.   

       

       HELP!         Fast Food     Restaurants


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