Методическая разработка занятия по английскому языку с применением кейс-метода “Advantages and Disadvantages of Being a Vegetarian”
методическая разработка по английскому языку на тему

Антонова Елена Юрьевна

Кейс-метод – это эффективный сплав всех существующих методов и приемов обучения. Изложенные в данной методической разработке практические приемы применения кейс-метода помогут преподавателям иностранных языков действовать наиболее эффективно, избежать монотонности и единообразия в своей педагогической деятельности, максимально мотивировать обучающихся, что несомненно положительно повлияет на качество обучения в целом.

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Методическая разработка занятия по английскому языку с применением кейс-метода “Advantages and Disadvantages of Being a Vegetarian”

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

В сфере моих интересов всегда лежали инновационные методы обучения. Инновации стали неотъемлемой частью современного обучения, а задача преподавателя заключается в грамотном отборе и использовании обучающих технологий с тем, чтобы обеспечить эффективность овладения иностранным языком. Во время работы учителем английского языка в среднеобразовательной школе мною разрабатывались методы применения новых информационных технологий на уроках английского языка, драматизации во внеурочной работе, а также проектный метод с использованием мультимедийных средств. Кейс-метод позволяет объединить все новые и традиционные методы преподавания, в чем заключается несомненная ценность применения данного метода при обучении иностранным языкам.

Приведу пример занятия с использование кейс-метода. Исследовательский кейс был разработан для студентов 3-го курса специальности 260807 «Технология продукции общественного питания», обучающихся английскому языку в Бюджетном образовательном учреждении Орловской области Среднего профессионального образования «Орловский технологический техникум».

Группа:         352, специальность 260807 «Технология продукции общественного питания»

Время занятия:                 4 академических часа

Вид кейса:                 исследовательский кейс

Тип кейса:                 обучающий анализу и оценке

Кейс является завершающем этапом изучения раздела «Национальные обычаи» рабочей программы по английскому языку, содержащего такие темы как «В ресторане», «Британская кухня», «Американская кухня», «Русская кухня», «Кулинарные рецепты», «Основные принципы здорового питания».

При изучении темы «Основы здорового питания» обучающиеся ознакомились с текстами “Eating for Good Health” и “Vegetarianism”, изучили лексику по теме “Healthy Food” и выполнили ряд лексико-грамматических заданий. /Н. И. Щербакова, Н. С. Звенигородская. Английский язык для специалистов общественного питания. Учеб. пособие для студ. сред. проф. учеб. заведений. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2005. – С.141-145/

2.1.        Определение тематики кейса

Тема вызвала интерес у обучающихся, во многом благодаря своей тесной связи с будущей профессией студентов. С целью поддержания мотивации изучения английского языка преподавателем было предложено проблемное направление следующего занятия: “Vegetarianism” («Вегетарианский образ жизни»). Обучающиеся после обсуждения самостоятельно задали проблему “Advantages and Disadvantages of Being a Vegetarian” («Преимущества и недостатки вегетарианского образа жизни»)

Задание подгруппам:

  1. Заполнить таблицу “DIETS” («Диеты»).
  2. Ознакомиться с типами вегетарианских диет и различиями между ними.

http://vegetarian.lovetoknow.com/Types_of_Vegetarians

  1. Исследовать статистику влияния вегетарианского образа жизни на здоровье человека.

http://www.vegetarianvictoria.org.au/going-vegetarian/statistics-on-vegetarianism.html

http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/vegetarian-diet/art-20046446?footprints=mine&pg=2

http://www.womenshealthmag.com/nutrition/vegetarians-vs-meat-eaters

http://vegetarian.lovetoknow.com/Disadvantages_of_Being_a_Vegetarian

http://vegetarian.lovetoknow.com/Advantages_of_Vegetarianism

  1. Исследовать статистику распространения вегетарианства среди населения (на примере США).

http://www.vrg.org/blog/2012/05/18/how-often-do-americans-eat-vegetarian-meals-and-how-many-adults-in-the-u-s-are-vegetarian/

  1. Провести сравнительный анализ преимуществ и недостатков вегетарианского образа жизни.

http://vegetarian.lovetoknow.com/Disadvantages_of_Being_a_Vegetarian

http://vegetarian.lovetoknow.com/Advantages_of_Vegetarianism

http://www.methodsofhealing.com/disadvantages-of-being-a-vegetarian/

  1. Изучить технологию написания эссе по проблемам здоровья.

http://www.essayhowto.com/1337-health-essay.html

2.2.        Содержание кейса

  1. Статья “Vegetarian diet reduces cancer risk”.

http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/0903/090317-vegetarians.html

  1. Аудиозапись и статья “Vegetarianism”

http://www.listenAminute.com/v/vegetarianism.html

  1. Заполненная участниками таблица «Диеты». (Приложение 1)
  2. Список наиболее распространённых вегетарианских диет с кратким описанием. (Приложение 2)

http://vegetarian.lovetoknow.com/Types_of_Vegetarians

  1. Сравнительный анализ преимуществ и недостатков вегетарианского образа жизни. (Приложение 3)

http://vegetarian.lovetoknow.com/Disadvantages_of_Being_a_Vegetarian

http://vegetarian.lovetoknow.com/Advantages_of_Vegetarianism

  1. Эссе “Becoming a Vegetarian Has Many Benefits” (Приложение 4)

http://www.essayhowto.com/?s=vegetarianism&submit=Search

  1. A Useful Language Bank for Communication and Writing (Приложение 5)

Объем кейса составляет 17 печатных листов шрифтом Times New Roman кеглем 14.

2.3.        Порядок работы над кейсом

I.ОРГАНИЗАЦИОННАЯ ЧАСТЬ. Выдача кейса. Ознакомление со шкалой оценивания.

II.        WARM-UPS. Мотивация, деление на группы, предварительное обсуждение, краткий опрос.

  1. Беседа с преподавателем о пользе и вреде употребления мяса в пищу.

MEAT: Walk around the class and talk to your students about meat.

  1. Деление на подгруппы по результатам беседы с преподавателем.

Группа А – сторонники вегетарианского образа жизни, группа В – их оппоненты.

HEALTH: Students A strongly believe everyone in the world should be vegetarian to save the planet. Students B strongly believe vegetarianism is totally unnecessary.

  1. Предварительное обсуждение в группах используемой в статье лексики.

Участники изучают список лексических единиц, используемых в статье, и выбирают наиболее интересные в плане обсуждения. Заинтересовавшие слова и выражение обсуждаются в группах А и В.

CHAT: In groups, decide which of these topics or words from the article are most interesting and which are most boring.

decade / studies / cancer / experts / the latest research / vegetarians / comparisons / findings / nutrition / diets / being more health conscious / animal products / honey

Have a chat about the topics you liked.

4. Краткий опрос участников по мерам профилактики раковых заболеваний. Участники заполняют таблицу, нумеруя перечисленные профилактические меры в порядке значимости согласно своему мнению.

CANCER: What do you think is the best way to prevent cancer? Rank the following in order.

_____ vegetarian diet

_____ using sun screen

_____ exercise

_____ regular health checks

_____ avoiding cigarettes / alcohol

_____ not having a microwave

_____ living a stress-free life

_____ living in the countryside

5. После ознакомления с содержанием п.3 и п.4 кейса участники в течение минуты записывают свои ассоциации со словом «диета». Записанные ассоциации обсуждаются в группах и распределяются по категориям (напр.: 1. Категория «Здоровая пища»; 2. Категория «Фрукты» и т.п.). Категории определяются самими участниками.

DIET: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word ‘diet’. Share your words with your partners and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.

III.        PRE-READING. ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ

1. Участники знакомятся с заголовком статьи и выполняют следующее задание.

TRUE / FALSE: Look at the article’s headline and guess whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F):

a.

The article talks about a 10-year-long study into cancer.

T / F

b.

The study in the article is the biggest ever to look at cancer and diet.

T / F

c.

Researchers studied the health of teenagers and centenarians.

T / F

d.

The study concludes that being vegetarian could benefit your health.

T / F

e.

The study’s findings are not yet published anywhere.

T / F

f.

A researcher said it was the first big study to look at a diet-cancer link.

T / F

g.

A greater number of people around the world are becoming vegetarian.

T / F

h.

Strict vegetarians should not eat cheese, yoghurt or honey.

T / F

2. Участники выполняют лексическое упражнение на нахождение синонимов к словам из текста.

SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article:

1.

decade

a.

divided

2

common

b.

conclusions

3.

tracked

c.

connection

4.

separated

d.

ten years

5.

protect

e.

widespread

6.

findings

f.

aware

7.

link

g.

followed

8.

conscious

h.

safeguard

9.

altogether

i.

rules out

10.

excludes

j.

completely

3. Участники выполняют задание на сопоставление фраз из текста статьи (возможна более, чем одна комбинация).

PHRASE MATCH: Match the following phrases from the article (sometimes more than one combination is possible):

1.

a decade-long

a.

all animal products

2

cancer is less common

b.

who ate meat

3.

the researchers tracked the

c.

among vegetarians

4.

compared with those

d.

diet and cancer

5.

being vegetarian could protect

e.

have been published

6.

the findings of the research

f.

eat eggs and fish

7.

look at the link between

g.

study

8.

people are becoming more and

h.

health of 63,550 men

9.

a strict vegetarian diet that excludes

i.

people against cancer

10.

less strict vegetarians

j.

more health conscious

III. READING. ЧТЕНИЕ

Участники читают статью «Вегетарианская диета уменьшает риск заболевания раком».

Vegetarian diet reduces cancer risk

A decade-long study in the United Kingdom has found that cancer is less common among vegetarians. Health experts have always thought that a vegetarian diet is healthier than one that includes meat. This latest research is one of the biggest studies to compare cancers in vegetarians and non-vegetarians. The researchers tracked the health of 63,550 men and women aged between 20 and 89. They separated people into different groups – meat-eaters, fish-eaters, and vegetarians. The research team reported a “significantly lower” number of cancers among the fish-eaters and vegetarians compared with those who ate meat. The study suggests being vegetarian could protect people against cancer.

The findings of the research have been published in the March 2009 edition of the ‘American Journal of Clinical Nutrition’. Lead researcher Professor Timothy Key said his study was the first major research to look at the link between diet and cancer. "It suggests there might be some reduction in cancers in vegetarians and fish-eaters and we need to look carefully at that," he said. Vegetarianism is on the increase around the world. People are becoming more and more health conscious and are eating less meat, or cutting it out altogether. Some people choose a strict vegetarian diet that excludes all animal products. This means no dairy products or honey. Less strict vegetarians eat eggs and fish.

1.        После чтения статьи участники выполняют задание по заполнению пропусков. Текст статьи делится на две части и распределяется по группам. Восстановленный текст зачитывается последовательно вслух.

GAP FILL: Put the words into the gaps in the text.

A decade-long study in the United Kingdom has __________ that cancer is less common among vegetarians. Health experts have always thought that a vegetarian diet is healthier than one that __________ meat. This latest research is one of the biggest __________ to compare cancers in vegetarians and non-vegetarians. The researchers __________ the health of 63,550 men and women aged between 20 and 89. They __________ people into different groups – meat-eaters, fish-eaters, and vegetarians. The research team reported a “significantly __________” number of cancers among the fish-eaters and vegetarians compared with __________ who ate meat. The study suggests being vegetarian could protect people __________ cancer.

STUDENTS A

lower
studies
separated
against
found
includes
tracked
those

The __________ of the research have been published in the March 2009 edition of the ‘American Journal of Clinical Nutrition’. Lead researcher Professor Timothy Key said his study was the first __________ research to look at the link between diet and cancer. "It suggests there might be some __________ in cancers in vegetarians and fish-eaters and we need to look carefully at that," he said. Vegetarianism is on the __________ around the world. People are becoming more and more health __________ and are eating less meat, or cutting it out __________. Some people choose a strict vegetarian diet that __________ all animal products. This means no dairy products or honey. Less __________ vegetarians eat eggs and fish.

STUDENTS B

increase
excludes
findings
altogether
major
strict
reduction
conscious

2. Участники читают статью повторно, составляют и записывают вопросы к тексту. Вопросы зачитываются и обсуждаются в группе, выбираются лучшие по мнению участников, далее следует обмен вопросами между группами А и В.

ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

  • Share your questions with other partners.
  • Ask other group your questions.

3. Работа над лексикой текста статьи. Участники выписывают незнакомые слова и переводят их при помощи словарей.

VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

IV. STUDENTS’ VEGETARIANISM SURVEY

Участники знакомятся с содержанием п.5 кейса и составляют 5 вопросов для проведения последующего опроса по преимуществам и недостаткам вегетарианского образа жизни. Опрос проводится между группами.

Write five GOOD questions about vegetarianism in the table.

When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

STUDENT 1

_____________

STUDENT 2

_____________

STUDENT 3

_____________

Q.1.

Q.2.

Q.3.

Q.4.

Q.5.

V. VEGETARIANISM DISCUSSION

ГРУППОВАЯ ДИСКУССИЯ

STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS. Вопросы группе А.

a)

What did you think when you read the headline?

b)

What springs to mind when you hear the word ‘vegetarian’?

c)

What do you think of vegetarianism?

d)

Would you change your diet to avoid being ill?

e)

Do you think eating meat is unhealthy?

f)

How healthy or unhealthy is your diet?

g)

Do you think the environment would be in a better condition if we were all vegetarians?

h)

Some say eating meat makes people more violent. Do you agree?

i)

Do we need to eat meat?

j)

If we all became vegetarians, would the world suddenly be full of pigs, cows, sheep and chickens?

V. VEGETARIANISM DISCUSSION

ГРУППОВАЯ ДИСКУССИЯ

STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS. Вопросы группе В.

a)

Did you like reading this article?

b)

Do you like reading about diet and health?

c)

Why do you think it has taken so long to do a major study on cancer and diet?

d)

What do you think of the argument that it is wrong to kill animals?

e)

Are strict vegetarians healthier than vegetarians who eat dairy products and honey?

f)

Have you ever changed your diet?

g)

What effects would vegetarianism have on your country’s health?

h)

Should fast food restaurants offer more vegetarian choices?

i)

Are the vegetarians you know happier and healthier?

j)

What questions would you ask Professor Timothy Key?

VI. LISTENING. АУДИРОВАНИЕ

Участники прослушивают аудиозапись «Вегетарианство» дважды.

Vegetarianism

If everyone in the world was a vegetarian, I think the world would be a better place. There simply isn’t enough land any more for cows and sheep to feed on. We are losing too many forests because farmers want more land to raise cows so we can eat beef. Vegetarianism is one way to help the Earth. It’s also one way to help ourselves. So many of us are fat because we eat too much meat. If we were all vegetarian, we would all be healthier. We all need to eat more vegetables. That’s the easiest way of looking after our health. If we were all vegetarian, we would also save lots of money on healthcare. We wouldn’t have all the heart problems that you get with eating meat. I wonder if we can all stop eating meat.

1. Взаимопроверка на понимание текста аудиозаписи. Участники в группах восстанавливают словосочетания текста по памяти, затем осуществляют взаимопроверку между группами.

TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your group, try to recall how they were used in the text:

  • better
  • raise
  • help
  • the easiest
  • lots of
  • heart
  • the Earth
  • place
  • way
  • cows
  • problems
  • money

VI. WRITING. ПИСЬМЕННАЯ ЧАСТЬ

Участники знакомятся с содержанием п.6 кейса – эссе “Becoming a Vegetarian Has Many Benefits” и п.7 – списка полезных фраз для устной и письменной речи. Содержание эссе поможет участникам написать о вегетарианском образе жизни, аргументировав свое мнение. На выполнение задания отводится 10 мин.

Write about vegetarianism for 10 minutes.

__________________________________________________________________

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VII. САМОПРОВЕРКА

Выполнение данного задания возможно на следующем занятии, в качестве контроля лексико-грамматических навыков, усвоенных в процессе работы над кейсом (что и было осуществлено автором разработки).

TEST YOURSELF. LANGUAGE WORK

A decade-(1) ____ study in the United Kingdom has found that cancer is less common among vegetarians. Health (2) ____ have always thought that a vegetarian diet is healthier than one that includes meat. This latest research is one of the biggest studies (3) ____ compare cancers in vegetarians and non-vegetarians. The researchers tracked the health of 63,550 men and women aged between 20 and 89. They separated people (4) ____ different groups – meat-eaters, fish-eaters, and vegetarians. The research team (5) ____ a “significantly lower” number of cancers among the fish-eaters and vegetarians compared with those who ate meat. The study suggests (6) ____ vegetarian could protect people against cancer.

The findings of the research (7) ____ been published in the March 2009 edition of the ‘American Journal of Clinical Nutrition’. Lead researcher Professor Timothy Key said his study was the first major research to look at the (8) ____ between diet and cancer. "It suggests there might be some (9) ____ in cancers in vegetarians and fish-eaters and we need to look carefully at that," he said. Vegetarianism is         (10) ____ the increase around the world. People are becoming more and more health conscious and are eating less meat, or cutting it (11) ____ altogether. Some people (12) ____ a strict vegetarian diet that excludes all animal products. This means no dairy products or honey. Less strict vegetarians eat eggs and fish.

Put the correct words from the table below in the above article.

1.

(a)

lengthy

(b)

longest

(c)

length

(d)

long

2.

(a)

experts

(b)

expertly

(c)

expertise

(d)

expert

3.

(a)

by

(b)

for

(c)

to

(d)

at

4.

(a)

out

(b)

into

(c)

on

(d)

up to

5.

(a)

report

(b)

reported

(c)

reportedly

(d)

reporting

6.

(a)

been

(b)

be

(c)

being

(d)

was

7.

(a)

have

(b)

having

(c)

had

(d)

haves

8.

(a)

sink

(b)

mink

(c)

wink

(d)

link

9.

(a)

reduces

(b)

reducing

(c)

reduced

(d)

reduction

10.

(a)

in

(b)

on

(c)

onto

(d)

up

11.

(a)

out

(b)

up

(c)

in

(d)

off

12.

(a)

chosen

(b)

choosy

(c)

choose

(d)

choice

VIII. ОБОБЩАЮЩЕЕ ВЫСТУПЛЕНИЕ ПРЕПОДАВАТЕЛЯ (обобщение результатов, подведение итогов)

IX. HOMEWORK. ДОМАШНЕЕ ЗАДАНИЕ

1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google’s search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.

РАСШИРЕНИЕ ЛЕКСИЧЕСКОГО ЗАПАСА. Выберите несколько слов из текста. Используйте словарь или поисковую систему Google (или любую другую доступную вам систему) для создания ассоциаций/словосочетаний с каждым словом.

2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about vegetarianism. Share what you discover with your partners in the next lesson.

ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ИНТЕРНЕТ-ИСТОЧНИКОВ. Осуществите поиск в Интернете новой информации по теме «Вегетарианский образ жизни» (напр., необычные рецепты вегетарианских блюд, известные вегетарианцы и т.п.). Подготовьте сообщение.

3. VEGETARIANISM: Write a magazine article about a vegetarian diet. Include imaginary interviews with a vegetarian and someone who loves meat.

НАПИШИТЕ СТАТЬЮ В ЖУРНАЛ о вегетарианской диете. Включите в нее воображаемое интервью с вегетарианцем и любителем мясных блюд.

X. ОЦЕНКА ОБУЧАЮЩИХСЯ преподавателем по системе оценивания, которая предъявляется в начале занятия.

Анализируя результаты проведенного занятия с применением кейс-метода, можно отметить следующие положительные тенденции:

  1. Повысилась мотивация обучающихся к изучению английского языка.
  2. Качественно изменилась подготовка обучающихся к занятиям.
  3. Изменилось отношение к Интернет-ресурсам как средству получения знаний и полезной информации.
  4. Расширился общий кругозор обучающихся.
  5. Повысилась самооценка обучающихся.

Контроль лексико-грамматических навыков по теме исследовательского кейса, проведенный преподавателем на следующем занятии, показал улучшение результатов освоения лексики.

Несомненно, применение кейс-метода способно значительно развить коммуникативные навыки обучающихся, помочь преодолеть так называемый «языковой барьер» при общении на иностранном языке, развить социокультурную и лингвистическую компетенции.

ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ

Преподавание есть искусство, а не ремесло – в этом самый корень учительского дела. Перепробовать десять методов и выбрать свой, наиболее эффективный для конкретной группы обучающихся, пересмотреть десять учебников и не придерживаться ни одного неукоснительно, учитывая индивидуальные условия, - вот единственно возможный путь живого преподавания. Вечно изобретать и пробовать – на основе осмысления результатов, последовательно требовать, неустанно совершенствоваться – это единственно правильный курс преподавателя.

По моему мнению, применение кейс-технологии при обучении иностранным языкам как нельзя более точно соответствует вышеизложенным принципам. Несомненно, применение кейс-метода имеет некоторые преимущества и риски. Изложу те неоспоримые преимущества, которые очевидны даже на первый взгляд.

Во-первых, кейс-метод дает возможность оптимально сочетать теорию и практику, развивать навыки работы с разнообразными источниками информации. Обучающиеся не получают готовых знаний, а учатся их добывать самостоятельно, принятые в реальной ситуации решения качественно переходят в жизненный опыт. Основная ценность кейс-метода – максимальное приближение процесса обучения к реальной жизни.

Во-вторых, применение кейс-метода ни коим образом не отменяет традиционные методы обучения, которые были и остаются основой для обучения иностранным языкам. Кейс-метод – это эффективный сплав всех существующих методов и приемов обучения.

Во-третьих, процесс решения проблемы, изложенной в кейсе, — это творческий процесс познания, который подразумевает коллективный характер познавательной деятельности. Следовательно, обучающиеся учатся соблюдать правила общения: работать в группах, слушать собеседников, аргументировать свою точку зрения, выстроив логические схемы решения проблемы, имеющей неоднозначное решение. Даже слабоуспевающие обучающиеся смогут участвовать в обсуждении вопросов, так как нет однозначных ответов, которые надо выучить. Они сами смогут предложить ответы. На уроке обучающиеся не будут скучать, а будут думать, анализировать, развивать навыки ведения дискуссии. Кейс-метод – действенное средство познания и повышения мотивации обучающихся.

Однако, как и у любого другого метода, у данного метода есть и свои трудности в использовании. Прежде всего, необходимо много времени для грамотной подготовки кейса к занятию. Преподаватель должен продумать форму представления кейса и спланировать деятельность обучающихся, сочетая индивидуальные и групповые формы работы. Непростой момент для преподавателя — это оценивание, ибо требуется оценить работу каждого участника, его активность и оригинальность, в то же время необходимо объективно оценить и его знания.

Но тем не менее, именно сложность, комплексность кейс-метода является его главным преимуществом. Каждый преподаватель знает, как порой трудно оперировать с застывшей системой знаний, как быстро теряется интерес обучающихся к выполнению однообразных упражнений. Кейс-метод – это система вариабельных составляющих, что позволяет преподавателю практически применить его в любой отрасли знаний, адаптируя к условиям.

Изложенные в данной методической разработке теоретические основы и практические приемы помогут преподавателям не только иностранных языков, но и других дисциплин действовать наиболее эффективно, избежать монотонности и единообразия в своей педагогической деятельности, максимально мотивировать обучающихся, что несомненно положительно повлияет на качество обучения в целом.

СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗУЕМЫХ ИСТОЧНИКОВ

  1. Гальскова Н.Д. Современная методика обучения иностранному языку. Пособие для учителя. -М.: АРКТИ-Глосса, 2000.
  2. Гейхман Л.К. Дистанционное образование в свете интерактивного подхода / Л.К. Гейхман // Матер. II Международ. Науч.- практ. конф. (Пермь, 6-8 февраля 2007 г.). - Пермь: Изд-во ПГТУ, 2006. - С.25-32.
  3. Ильина О. К. Использование кейс-метода в практике преподавания английского языка.
  4. Земкова А. С. Использование кейс-метода в образовательном процессе.
  5. Назаренко А.А. Проблемы оптимизации и преподавания языка для специальных целей. –М.: УРСС,2000
  6. Педагогика: учебник для студентов педагогических вузов и педагогических колледжей/ Под ред. П.И. Пидкастистого. - М.: Педагогическое общество России, 2002.
  7. Ситуационный анализ, или анатомия кейс-метода / Под ред. Ю.П. Сурмина. – Киев: Центр инноваций и развития, 2002. - 286 с.
  8. Щербакова Н. И., Звенигородская Н. С. Английский язык для специалистов общественного питания. Учеб. пособие для студ. сред. проф. учеб. заведений. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2005. – С.141-145
  9. Щетина Н. Ю. Использование кейс-технологий на уроках английского языка.
  10. Федеральный государственный образовательный стандарт среднего профессионального образования.
  11. Федоринова З. В. Использование case study в организации образовательной деятельности студентов.
  12. Кейс-метод. Окно в мир ситуационной методики обучения (case-study). [Электронный ресурс] / Доступ: http://www.casemethod.ru

Приложение 1

Заполните таблицу «Диеты».

DIETS: Are you happy with what you eat? Complete the table. Talk about what you wrote with your partners.

Diet

Health benefits

I could (not) follow this because

Vegan

Less strict vegetarian

Fast Food

Meat-based

Fruitarian

Приложение 2

Different Types of Vegetarians

Flowing from the different reasons to embrace vegetarianism are a number of variations on the vegetarian diet.

Total Vegetarian

Total Vegetarians eat a diet which consists only of plant food and excludes animal foods, which along with meat includes:

  • Dairy products
  • Eggs
  • Fish
  • Honey

Vegans

Like the Total Vegetarians, Vegans eliminate animal products from their diet. However, they take it a step further. They don't use any products made from animals. This includes:

  • Leather
  • Wool
  • Silk

Lacto-vegetarians

While Lacto Vegetarians eliminate meat from their diet, they do eat dairy products with the exception of eggs.

Lacto-ovo-vegetarians

Lacto-ovo-vegetarians don't eat meat but do include dairy products and eggs in their diet. This is the most common type of vegetarian.

Semi-vegetarians

Semi-vegetarians restrict their intake of animal products but do allow specific kinds of meat in their diet. These restrictions vary from one person to another. If you are a semi-vegetarian, you'll find that purists don't look at semi-vegetarians as real vegetarians. Semi-vegetarians include:

  • Pesco Vegetarians: Allow fish in their vegetarian diet.
  • Pollo Vegetarians: Eat a largely plant-based diet but do allow poultry to be consumed. This includes:
  • Chicken
  • Duck
  • Turkey
  • Wild fowl

Raw Foodists

Raw foodists don't heat their food above 115 degrees Fahrenheit because they believe the cooking process kills valuable enzymes. This diet consists mostly of:

  • Fruits
  • Raw vegetables
  • Nuts and seeds

Fruitarians

Fruitarians only eat fruit and fruit-like vegetables (about 75 percent of their diet) and is actually a type of vegan diet. It consists of a minimal amount of processed or cooked foods. An added twist to the fruitarian diet is that they only eat fruit harvested without killing the plant. This includes things like:

  • Avocados
  • Cucumbers
  • Grains
  • Nuts
  • Squash
  • Tomatoes

Приложение 3

Сравнительный анализ преимуществ и недостатков вегетарианского образа жизни

PRO Vegetarians

  1. It is cruel and unethical to kill animals for food when vegetarian options are available. Animals are sentient beings that have emotions and social connections. Scientific studies show that cattle, pigs, chickens, and all warm-blooded animals can experience stress, pain, and fear. In the United States about 35 million cows, 115 million pigs, and 9 billion birds are killed for food each year. These animals should not have to die to satisfy an unnecessary dietary preference.
  2. Human anatomy has evolved to support a primarily vegetarian diet. Humans do not have the large mouth or long, pointed teeth of carnivores. Human teeth are short and flat for chewing fibrous food. Carnivores have short intestines (3-6 times body length) while human intestines are long (10-11 times body length) to allow slower digestion of plant foods.
  3. A vegetarian diet delivers complete nutrition and can provide health benefits. According to the American Dietetic Association, a vegetarian diet can meet protein requirements, provide all the essential amino-acids (the building blocks of protein), and improve health. It can also provide all the necessary vitamins, fats, and minerals, and can improve one’s health. According to the USDA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, meat is not an essential part of a healthy diet.
  4. A vegetarian diet can help alleviate world hunger. Over 10 pounds of plant protein are used to produce one pound of beef protein. If these grains were fed to humans instead of animals, more food would be available for the 925 million people in chronic hunger worldwide. Research from Cornell University found that the grain used to feed US livestock alone could feed 800 million people.
  5. A vegetarian diet reduces the chances of developing kidney stones and gallstones. Diets high in animal protein cause the body to excrete calcium, oxalate, and uric acid—the main components of kidney stones and gallstones. A diet high in animal protein is responsible for the high rates (15% of men and 7% of women) of kidney stones in the United States, according to a peer-reviewed Nov. 15, 1999 study.
  6. A vegetarian diet provides a more healthful form of iron than a meat-based diet. Studies have linked heme iron found in red meat with an increased risk of colon and rectal cancer. Vegetarian sources of iron like leafy greens and beans contain non-heme iron.
  7. A vegetarian diet helps build healthy bones because vegetarians absorb more calcium than meat eaters. Meat has high renal acid levels which the body must neutralize by leaching calcium from the bones, which is then passed into urine and lost. There are many sources of healthy vegetarian calcium including tofu, dark leafy greens like kale, spinach, and collard greens, as well as fortified cereals.
  8. A vegetarian diet lowers the risk of heart disease. According to a peer-reviewed 1999 study of 76,000 people, vegetarians had 24% lower mortality from heart disease than meat eaters. A vegetarian diet also helps lower blood pressure, prevent hypertension, and thus reduce the risk of stroke.
  9. Eating meat increases the risk of getting type 2 diabetes. A peer-reviewed 2004 study from Harvard researchers found that eating meat increases the risk of getting type 2 diabetes in women, and a 2002 study found that eating processed meat increases the risk in men. A vegetarian diet rich in whole grains, legumes, nuts, and soy proteins helps to improve glycemic control in people who already have diabetes.
  10. Vegetarians live longer. A Mar. 12, 2012 peer-reviewed study of 121,342 people found that eating red meat was associated with an increased risk of death from cancer and cardiovascular disease. A peer-reviewed 2003 study found that adherence to vegetarian diets or diets very low in meat for 20 years or more can increase life expectancy by 3.6 years. A peer-reviewed July 9, 2001 study of Seventh-Day Adventists who were vegetarian (or ate very little meat) showed longevity increases of 7.28 years for men and 4.42 years for women. On June 3, 2013 a peer-reviewed study of 73,308 people found that a vegetarian diet is associated with a 12% reduction in all-cause mortality.
  11. A vegetarian diet promotes a healthy weight. According to a peer-reviewed 2003 Oxford University study of 37,875 healthy men and women aged 20-97, 5.4% of meat eaters were obese compared to 3% of vegetarians. Meat eaters had an average Body Mass Index (BMI) 8.3% higher than vegetarians. Another 2006 meta-study that compiled data from 87 studies also found that vegetarian diets are associated with reduced body weight.
  12. Studies show that vegetarians are up to 40% less likely to develop cancer than meat eaters. According to a peer-reviewed 1994 study by Harvard researchers, consuming beef, pork, or lamb five or more times a week significantly increases the risk of colon cancer. The World Cancer Research Fund found that eating processed meats such as bacon or sausage increases this risk even further. A 2014 study found that diets high in animal protein were associated with a 4-fold increase in cancer death risk compared to high protein diets based on plant-derived protein sources.
  13. Overgrazing livestock hurts the environment through soil compaction, erosion, and harm to native plants and animals. About 70% of the 11 western states are grazed by livestock. Grazing has been a factor in the listing of 171 species under the Endangered Species Act. It has damaged 80% of streams and riparian areas in the western United States. 85% of US land used for grazing livestock is not suitable for farming. Abstaining from meat would help in the restoration of vast US lands more naturally suited to provide habitat for native plants and animals.
  14. A vegetarian diet conserves water. It takes about 2,500 gallons of water to produce one pound of beef, and about 660 gallons to make a pound of chicken. It only takes about 220 gallons to make a pound of tofu and 180 to make a pound of wheat flour.
  15. Raising animals for food creates 18% of global greenhouse gases - more than the transportation sector. Greenhouse gases are created by animal farts and burps (aka enteric fermentation), manure decomposition, and deforestation to make room for grazing animals and growing feed. Producing a pound of hamburger meat contributes as much greenhouse gas as driving a small car nearly 20 miles. A pound of pork equals about 5 miles, and a pound of potatoes only 0.34 miles. A June 2010 report from the United Nations Environment Programme stated that a "worldwide diet change, away from animal products" is necessary to stop the worst effects of global climate change.
  16. Producing one hamburger destroys 55 square feet of rainforest. Between 1996-2006, 25 million acres of Amazon rainforest were cleared—80% of which became pasture for beef cattle. In 2009, the United States imported 44,284 tons of processed Brazilian beef mostly for use in hamburgers, hot dogs, and lunch meats. Importing fresh Brazilian beef became legal in Nov. 2010, and US beef imports from Brazil will likely increase.
  17. Raising animals for food contributes to air and water pollution. Manure produces toxic hydrogen sulfide and ammonia which pollute the air and leach poisonous nitrates into nearby waters. The USDA estimates that livestock produces 500 million tons of manure annually—three times what humans produce. Runoff laden with manure is a major cause of "dead zones” in 173,000 miles of US waterways, including the 7,700-square-mile dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico. People living near CAFOs often have respiratory problems from hydrogen sulfide and ammonia air pollution. A peer-reviewed 2006 study of Iowa students near a CAFO found 19.7% had asthma - nearly three times the state average of 6.7%.
  18. Many animals raised for food in the United States are not slaughtered humanely. The Humane Methods of Slaughter Act (HMSA) mandates that livestock be stunned unconscious before slaughter to minimize suffering. However, birds such as chickens and turkey are exempted from the HMSA, and many US slaughterhouses routinely ignore the HMSA. A 2010 report by the US Government Accountability Organization (GAO) found that the USDA was not "taking consistent actions to enforce the HMSA."
  19. Raising animals in confinement is cruel. About 50% of meat produced in the United States comes from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) where animals live in filthy, overcrowded spaces. In CAFOs pigs have their tails cut off, chickens have their toenails and beaks clipped off, and cows have their horns removed and tails cut off with no painkillers. Pregnant pigs are kept in metal gestation crates barely bigger than they are. Baby cows raised for veal are tied up and confined in tiny stalls their entire short lives (3-18 weeks).
  20. A vegetarian diet reduces overuse of antibiotics. 70% of antibiotics sold in the United States go to livestock like cows, pigs, and chickens to prevent the spread of disease in CAFOs where animals live cramped together. A peer-reviewed 2007 study from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences found that overuse of antibiotics in CAFOs causes antibiotic resistant bacteria to develop, which may endanger human health.
  21. Eating fish is not a more ethical or environmentally sound alternative to other animal protein sources. Scientific studies show fish feel pain when they are injured. In addition, wild fish are severely impacted by overfishing. According to a peer-reviewed 2006 study published in Science, 29% of all commercially fished species have suffered population collapse, and at current fishing levels all harvested species will have collapsed by 2048.
  22. Eating fish is not necessary to maintain optimal health, and can even have negative health effects. Omega-3 acids (which can be found in fish) are crucial for health, but the mercury that contaminates most seafood is not. The omega-3 acid ALA is found in vegetarian sources like walnut, flax, and olive oils, and is converted by the body into EPA and DHA—the essential omega-3 acids found in fish. In terms of mercury contamination in seafood, the US EPA states that "nearly all fish and shellfish" are contaminated by methyl mercury (a potent neurotoxin) from industrial pollution.

CON Vegetarians

  1. Eating meat is not cruel or unethical; it is a natural part of the cycle of life. Vegetarians mistakenly elevate the value of animal life over plant life. Research shows that plants respond electrochemically to threats and may feel fear, so vegetarians are also causing harm every time they kill and eat a plant. Every organism on earth dies or is killed, at some point, so others organisms can live. There is nothing wrong with this cycle; it is how nature works.
  2. Eating meat has been an essential part of human evolution for 2.3 million years. The inclusion of meat in the ancestral diet provided a dense form of nutrients and protein that, when combined with high-calorie low-nutrient carbohydrates such as roots, allowed us to develop our large brains and intelligence. Evidence shows our taste buds evolved to crave meat's savory flavor.
  3. Meat is the most convenient protein source available. In one serving, meat provides all the essential amino acids (the building blocks of protein), as well as essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, and B vitamins. Most plant foods do not provide adequate levels of all the essential amino acids in a single serving.
  4. Eating meat provides healthy saturated fats, which enhance the function of the immune and nervous systems. Saturated fats contain the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, and the cholesterol from saturated animal fat is needed for the proper function of serotonin receptors in the brain. According to a Feb. 7, 2014 study by researchers at the Institute of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, vegetarians "suffer significantly more often from anxiety disorder and/or depression." Low cholesterol levels have been linked to depression. Saturated fats are also essential for building and maintaining cell health, and help the body absorb calcium.
  5. Meat is the best source of vitamin B12, a vitamin necessary to nervous and digestive system health. Although it is also found in eggs and dairy, a peer-reviewed July 2003 study showed two in three vegetarians were vitamin B12 deficient compared to one in 20 meat eaters.
  6. Eating meat provides a better source of iron than a vegetarian diet. The body absorbs 15% to 35% of the heme iron in meat, but only absorbs 2% to 20% of the non-heme iron found in vegetarian sources like leafy greens and beans.
  7. A meat-centered diet can help with weight loss. It takes fewer calories to get protein from lean meat than it does from vegetarian options. One serving of lean beef (3 oz.) contains as much protein as one serving of beans (1½ cups) or a veggie burger. However, the lean beef has half the calories of beans (180 vs. 374), and 50%-75% fewer calories than the veggie burger.
  8. Raising beef is often the most efficient way to produce food for humans. About 85% of US grazing land is not suitable for raising crops humans can eat. Today 98% of the original American prairie lands, along with their native plants and animals, are gone. Most of that land is now covered in corn and wheat fields. Natural prairie grasslands can coexist with sustainable herds of cattle or bison, but they cannot coexist with monocrop agriculture.
  9. Vegetarian diets are not necessarily better for the environment. About 90% of US cropland suffers from top soil loss at 13 times the sustainable rate. 92 % of US soybeans (a vegetarian staple protein) are planted with genetically modified soy, immune to herbicides. This immunity allows soy farmers to douse their fields with large quantities of weed-killing herbicides which are toxic to other plants and fish. Some scientists worry that increased herbicide use could create "super weeds."
  10.  Vegetarians do not live longer. This myth stems from the fact that vegetarians tend to be more health conscious overall, eating a more balanced diet, exercising more, and smoking less than the general population. When a peer-reviewed Apr. 11, 2005 study from the German Cancer Research Center compared health conscious meat eaters with vegetarians, there was no difference in overall mortality rates.
  11. US meat consumption does not significantly contribute to global deforestation, or loss of US forest land. In 2001, about 95% of animal products consumed in the United States were produced in the United States. Despite the US consumption of about 27 billion pounds of beef per year, the percentage of forested US land has remained steady at around 33% since 1907.
  12. Processed vegetarian protein options such as tofu can cause more greenhouse gas pollution than farming meat. A 2010 report from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) found that the production of soy-based proteins such as tofu could contribute more to greenhouse gas emissions than eating locally produced meat. According to a peer-reviewed 2009 study, giving up all animal products would only give a 7% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, not enough to be worth the dietary sacrifice.
  13. Becoming vegetarian will not help alleviate world hunger. The 925 million people in chronic hunger worldwide are not hungry because people in wealthy countries eat too much meat. The problem is one of economics and distribution. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the world "currently produces enough food for everybody, but many people do not have access to it."
  14. A diet that includes fish provides the body with essential omega-3 fatty acids. Fish are a powerful source of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA which are important for brain function, lowering triglycerides, and reducing the risk of death from heart attacks and strokes. Although the omega-3 fatty acid ALA can be found in plant oils, the ALA must first be converted by the body into the essential EPA and DHA. The process is inefficient and may not provide the same cardiovascular benefits as eating fish.
  15. Saturated fats from meat are not to blame for modern diseases like heart disease, cancer, and obesity. Chemically processed and hydrogenated vegetable oils like corn and canola cause these conditions because they contain harmful free radicals and trans fats formed during chemical processing.
  16. Lean red meat, eaten in moderation, can be a healthful part of a balanced diet. According to researchers at the British Nutrition Foundation, "there is no evidence" that moderate consumption of unprocessed lean red meat has any negative health effects. However, charring meat during cooking can create over 20 chemicals linked to cancer, and the World Cancer Research Fund finds that processed meats like bacon, sausage, and salami, which contain preservatives such as nitrates, are strongly associated with bowel cancer and should be avoided. They emphasize that lean, unprocessed red meat can be a valuable source of nutrients and do not recommend that people remove red meat from their diets entirely, but rather, that they limit consumption to 11 ounces per week or less.
  17. Modern slaughter techniques minimize the suffering of animals. US slaughterhouses must conform to the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act (HMSA) which mandates that livestock be stunned unconscious before slaughter. Many of the largest US meat producers also adhere to the handling standards developed by Dr. Temple Grandin which factor in animal psychology to design transportation devices, stockyards, loading ramps, and restraining systems that minimize stress and calm animals as they are led to slaughter.
  18. There is nothing inherently cruel about raising animals for food. There is a growing movement to raise "cruelty free" organic meat. In the United States, animals raised for certified organic meat must be given access to the outdoors, clean air, and water. They cannot be given growth hormones or antibiotics and must be fed organically-grown feed free of animal byproducts. According to a 2007 report from the Range Improvement Task Force, organic meat accounted for 3% of total US meat production. By the end of 2012 "natural and organic" beef accounted for 4% of total beef sales in the United States.
  19. The right to eat what we want, including meat, is a fundamental liberty that we must defend. Animal-rights and health groups are attempting to control personal behavior, and many would like to see meat consumption severely restricted—if not outlawed—through the use of lawsuits, heavy taxation, and government regulations. What people eat should be a protected personal choice.
  20. It is not necessary to become vegetarian to lower our environmental footprint. Some vegetarians eat an unhealthy diet, drive SUVs, and consume eggs and dairy products produced at factory farms (CAFOs). Some meat eaters use solar panels, ride a bike, grow their own vegetables, and eat free-range organic meat. All of a person's actions make a difference—not just a single act such as eating meat. For example, biking instead of driving for 5 miles can neutralize the greenhouse gas emissions from eating one quarter-pound hamburger patty.
  21. Vegetarian diets can cause the death of animals too. According to a 2003 study by Steven Davis at Oregon State University, about six animals per acre, or 52-77% of the animals (such as birds, mice, and rabbits) that live in agricultural crop fields, are killed during harvest.
  22. Becoming a vegetarian is not the best way to improve safety for workers in the meatpacking industry. The meatpacking industry can be dangerous, but the solution for improving the safety of slaughterhouse workers is the strengthening of workplace safety rules, and increasing the monitoring of factories for safety violations—not to stop eating meat. Many jobs can be dangerous, but that does not mean that these jobs should not be performed. According to the US Department of Labor, 278 workers died producing crops in 2009. The most fatal occupation in the United States in 2009 was construction work (818 fatalities), followed by motor vehicle operators such as truckers (660 fatalities).

Приложение 4

Sample Vegetarian Essay

Becoming a Vegetarian Has Many Benefits

Have you ever wondered why more and more people are turning into vegetarianism? Have you ever considered becoming a vegetarian? Maybe it’s time you give it a try. People become vegetarians for a variety of reasons. These can be for health benefits, religious beliefs, to promote a healthy environment and to preserve animals and their rights. There is no end to the benefits of becoming a vegetarian. Even many governments in various countries encourage their populations to consider a plant-based diet and obtain most of the calorie intake through grain products and vegetables and fruits. Persons who are still undecided about whether they should convert their diets to vegetarian should consider some of its benefits.

A vegetarian diet is extremely beneficial when warding off heart disease. Most heart disease such as heart attacks, high blood pressure, occurs due to the diet. A low-fat vegetarian diet is one of the most effective methods of preventing coronary artery disease. According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. This is mainly due to a diet rich in saturated fats and a sedentary lifestyle. According to statistics the mortality rate for cardiovascular diseases is significantly lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians. Cholesterol is derived mainly from animal fats. A vegetarian diet consists of absolutely no animal fats, but is high in all things healthy. Vegetarian diets are high in fibre and disease fighting antioxidants and various other vitamins and minerals that fight heart disease.

Becoming a vegetarian can also prevent unnecessary weight gain. For example, most high-protein meals can pack in the pounds. A vegetarian diet ensures that unhealthy, fatty foods and high carbohydrate foods are not included in the diet. According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention 64% of American adults and 15% of children aged 6 to 19 are overweight. This increases their risk of many weight-related illnesses such as diabetes and heart attacks and strokes. However, a low-fat vegetarian diet can reduce the weight gained and also enable easy weight loss. Being vegetarian also ensures that the weight can be maintained throughout a person’s life. Vegetables such as beans, sweet potatoes and leafy green vegetables also boost the metabolism. Vegetables can also prevent hunger pangs that cause overeating and are extremely low in calories. This enhances weight loss and helps reduce weight faster.

Osteoporosis is a condition that causes weak and brittle bones. It is a condition that has no symptoms and the result is a fracture. A diet high in calcium is the best method of preventing fractures from osteoporosis. There are various vegetables that are extremely high in calcium. For example, dark green vegetables such as spinach, kale, broccoli, turnip and collard greens are extremely beneficial for warding off osteoporosis. Excess animal proteins can cause an acidic condition in the body. The body, to counteract this condition, takes calcium from the bones. Vegetarians do not have this problem. The right amount of calcium obtained through high calcium vegetable sources ensures a healthy body, free of the risk of osteoporosis.

Becoming a vegetarian can be considered to save the environment. The chemical and animal waste from the meat industry pollutes rivers and streams contributing to Global Warming. Furthermore, animals are injected with various types of steroids and hormones. These toxic chemicals are harmful for the body. Fish too; consist of carcinogens and heavy metals. These toxins cannot be eradicated from the fish even through boiling. Persons who consume heavy amounts of fish or poultry or meat are at high risk of getting cancer and other diseases that occur with high ingestion of toxins in the body. These concerns do not affect vegetarians.

Apart from the health benefits of going vegetarian, vegetarian meals are colourful on the plate, easy to prepare and saves a significant amount of money. These are just some of the reasons why more and more people are turning to vegetarian foods. Isn’t it time you considered becoming a vegetarian too?

Приложение 5

A Useful Language Bank for Communication and Writing

  • Asking for opinions.
  • What’s your opinion on...?
  • How do you feel about....?
  • What do you think about....?
  • What’s your view on...?

  • Expressing opinions.
  • My point of view is that...
  • Well, as far as I’m concerned...
  • Well, if you ask me...
  • It seems\ appears to me that...
  • I think\ believe...\ must...\
  • In my opinion\ view...
  • To me...\ may\ might
  • From my point of view...
  • To my mind/ way of thinking...
  • As far as I am concerned...
  • I am totally against...
  • I (do not) agree that \ with...
  • I (completely) agree \ disagree that \ with...

  • Making Suggestions.
  • If I were ... I would...
  • Perhaps they should....
  • Why don’t we/ they...
  • How/ what about...?
  • A good idea would be...
  • If they..., then...
  • They can/ should...
  • I think we/ you should...
  • You could always...
  • Let’s...
  • Have you thought about...
  • It would be a great idea to...
  • We can/ could...
  • A useful suggestion would be to...
  • It would help/ It would be a good idea if...
  • The situation would be improved if/ by...
  • Another way to... is / would be to...

  • Agreeing.
  • I think you are right...
  • That’s true...
  • I quite agree with you...
  • You’re right.
  • I couldn’t agree more.
  • That’s a great / good/ fantastic idea.
  • Sure, why not.
  • That sounds interesting / great.

  • Disagreeing.
  • I’m not sure I agree with you.
  • That’s true, but...
  • Do you really think so?
  • I’m afraid I can’t agree with you.
  • No, I really can’t agree with you.
  • I don’t really feel like it.
  • That sounds boring.

  • Presenting results and consequences.
  • This would .../ In this way...; you /it /etc. would....
  • By doing this, you/we/ etc., would...
  • The effect / consequence / result of... would be...
  • Consequently,...
  • As a result,....

Приложение 6

ЭТАЛОН ОТВЕТОВ

ANSWERS

TRUE / FALSE:

a.

T

b.

F

c.

F

d.

T

e.

F

f.

T

g.

T

h.

T

SYNONYM MATCH:

1.

decade

a.

ten years

2

common

b.

widespread

3.

tracked

c.

followed

4.

separated

d.

divided

5.

protect

e.

safeguard

6.

findings

f.

conclusions

7.

link

g.

connection

8.

conscious

h.

aware

9.

altogether

i.

completely

10.

excludes

j.

rules out

PHRASE MATCH:

1.

A decade-long

a.

study

2

cancer is less common

b.

among vegetarians

3.

the researchers tracked the

c.

health of 63,550 men

4.

compared with those

d.

who ate meat

5.

being vegetarian could protect

e.

people against cancer

6.

the findings of the research

f.

have been published

7.

look at the link between

g.

diet and cancer

8.

people are becoming more and

h.

more health conscious

9.

a strict vegetarian diet that excludes

i.

all animal products

10.

less strict vegetarians

j.

eat eggs and fish

GAP FILL:

Vegetarian diet reduces cancer risk

A decade-long study in the United Kingdom has found that cancer is less common among vegetarians. Health experts have always thought that a vegetarian diet is healthier than one that includes meat. This latest research is one of the biggest studies to compare cancers in vegetarians and non-vegetarians. The researchers tracked the health of 63,550 men and women aged between 20 and 89. They separated people into different groups – meat-eaters, fish-eaters, and vegetarians. The research team reported a “significantly lower” number of cancers among the fish-eaters and vegetarians compared with those who ate meat. The study suggests being vegetarian could protect people against cancer.

The findings of the research have been published in the March 2009 edition of the ‘American Journal of Clinical Nutrition’. Lead researcher Professor Timothy Key said his study was the first major research to look at the link between diet and cancer. "It suggests there might be some reduction in cancers in vegetarians and fish-eaters and we need to look carefully at that," he said. Vegetarianism is on the increase around the world. People are becoming more and more health conscious and are eating less meat, or cutting it out altogether. Some people choose a strict vegetarian diet that excludes all animal products. This means no dairy products or honey. Less strict vegetarians eat eggs and fish.

LANGUAGE WORK:

1 - d

2 - a

3 - c

4 - b

5 - b

6 - c

7 - a

8 - d

9 -d

10 - b

11 - a

12 - c


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