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    Степени сравнения прилагательных.Типы сравнения. Лексико-грамматический практикум, Подготовка к ЕГЭ по английскому языку.
    методическая разработка по английскому языку (10, 11 класс)

    Степени сравнения прилагательных. Типы сравнения. Лексико-грамматический практикум.Подготовка к ЕГЭ по английскому языку.

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    Comparatives and Superlatives.

    We use the comparative to compare one person or thing with another. We use the superlative to compare one person or thing with more than one person or thing of the same group. We often use than after a comparative and the before a superlative. She is younger than me. She’s the youngest person in the room.

    Formation of comparatives and superlatives from adjectives and adverbs:

    1. with one-syllable adjectives, we add -(e)r to form the comparative and -(e)st to form the superlative.

    large - larger - largest

    Note: for one-syllable adjectives ending in a vowel + a consonant, we double the consonant.

    thin - thinner - thinnest

    1. with two-syllable adjectives ending in -ly, -y, -w, we also add -er / -est. lively - livelier - liveliest

    Note: for adjectives ending in a consonant + y, we replace the -y with an -i. tidy — tidier - tidiest

    1. with other two-syllable adjectives or adjectives with more than two syllables, comparatives and superlatives are formed with more/most. comfortable - more comfortable - most comfortable
    2. with adverbs that have the same form as their adjectives, we add -er/-est. hard - harder – hardest

    These include: hard, fast, free, high, low, deep, early, late, long, near, straight, right, wrong. Also hourly, daily, weekly, monthly and yearly.

    e.g. The lake is deep, (adjective)

    They went deep into the forest, (adverb)

    These biscuits are very hard, (adjective)

    He tried hard in order to succeed, (adverb)

    ‘Bella Donna’ is a weekly magazine, (adjective)

    It comes out weekly, (adverb)

    ► The adverbs below have two forms, each with a different meaning:

    1. The treasure was buried deep underground. (= a long way down)

    He is deeply in love with her. (= very)

    1. The hotel guests can use the swimming pool free. (= without payment)

    The animals in the safari park can roam freely. (= without limit or restriction.)

    1. The kite flew high in the sky. (= at/to a high level)

    He is a highly respected doctor. (= very much)

    1. She arrived late for the meeting. (= not early)

    He hasn’t been feeling well lately. (= recently)

    1. Which of his songs do you like most? (= superlative of much)

    I’m mostly interested in modern art. (= mainly)

    1. As he came near, I realised that something was wrong. (= close)

    She nearly fainted when she heard the news.

    (= almost)

    1. He is a pretty strange man. (= rather)

    The bridesmaids were prettily dressed in pink. (= in a pretty way)

    1. He is working hard these days. (= with a lot of effort) They hardly go anywhere now that they have children. (= almost never)

    Note: Hardly has a negative meaning and is often used with: any, anyone, anywhere, anything and ever.

    For each gap, turn the adjective into an  adverb.

    Julia was walking 1) _______ (quick) down the street when she heard someone call her name 2) ________ (loud). She looked 3) _________ (nervous) behind her, but the street was 4) ___________ (complete) empty. There was nobody there. 5) _________ (Sudden), she heard her name again. She turned to see her brother running towards her, smiling 6) __________ (cheerful). ‘Didn’t you hear me?’ he laughed 7) __________ (happy). ‘Nick!’ gasped Julia. ‘You 8) ________ (near) frightened me to death!'

    Fill in the correct adjective or adverb using the words in brackets.

    1. Gillian behaved very _________ at the party last night. (bad).
    2. You are quite ________ at playing the piano, aren’t you? (good).
    3.  Think about it ________ before you make a decision, (careful).
    4. I like my bedroom because it's so ________ . (cosy).
    5. It makes me feel ________ to think of you living alone, (sad).
    6. If you can’t talk ________ , don't talk at all. (sensible).
    7. Her whole family died in a ________ accident, (tragic).
    8. I was not ________ convinced by her reasoning. (whole).
    9. ______,1 can't help you. (unfortunate).
    10. You look _______ in your new dress. (lovely).
    11. The ability to think _________ is an important skill. (logical).
    12.  I ______ believe this to be the finest novel ever written. (true).
    13. You’d better work        __________ if you want to keep your job. (hard).
    14.  Please don’t drive so ________ .(fast).
    15. Linda washes her hair __________ . (daily).
    16. That chicken tastes __________ . (delicious).
    17. You’re bound to make mistakes if you write so _________ . (careless).
    18. Your perfume smells __________ .(beautiful).
    19. Charles and Camilla have been living together __________ for years. (happy).
    20. Although I had only met him once, he greeted me        _____________ . (friendly)

    Underline the correct item.

    1. This is a pretty/prettily complicated situation.
    2. They had hard/hardly been home for a minute when the phone rang.
    3. My friends are most/mostly vegetarians.
    4. Her loose outfit allowed her to move free/freely.
    5. The shelf was so high/highly that he couldn’t reach it.
    6. John may be late/lately home tonight, as he has a lot of work to do.
    7. The room was pretty/prettily decorated.
    8. Children under five years old travel free/freely.
    9. Sue has near/nearly finished her homework.
    10. They have been going out a lot late/lately.
    11. This college is high/highly recommended for its range of courses.
    12. The miners dug deep/deeply to find coal.
    13. The new supermarket is very near/nearly our house.
    14. He is deep/deeply involved in the scandal.
    15. We found it hard/hardly to get used to living in a foreign country.
    16. Which of Mel Gibson's films do you like most/mostly?

     Underline the correct item.

    1. The arrow flew wide/widely of the target.        
    2. Computers are wide/widely used in schools nowadays.        
    3. Students can enter the museum free/freely on Saturdays.        
    4. He free/freely admitted to being a liar.
    5. 1 like sitting near/nearly the fire.
    6. Be careful! You near/nearly crashed into that cyclist.
    7. She left too late/lately to catch the train.
    8. Have you seen any good films late/lately?
    9. The death of his friend affected him deep/deeply.        
    10. To find water, they had to dig deep/deeply into the ground.        
    11. I think he's a pretty/prettily good singer, actually.
    12. The little girl laughed pretty/prettily at the sight of the puppy.
    13. He tries very hard/hardly to make her happy.
    14. She used to be a great musician, but she hard/hardly plays at all now.
    15. Tommy came last/lastly in the 100m sprint.
    16. Last/Lastly, I would like to thank the caterers for providing such delicious food.
    17. Mr Tibbs isn't in at the moment, but he'll be here short/shortly.
    18. The policeman stopped short/shortly when he saw the robber had a gun.
    19. The eagle was flying high/highly above the mountains.
    20. My father is a high/highly respected surgeon.

    Underline the correct item.

    1. I have been working very hard late/lately.
    2. The mountain was so high/highly that they couldn’t climb it.
    3. Hurry up! It is near/nearly time to go.
    4. Her books are most/mostly romance novels.
    5. He found it hard/hardly to explain his problem.
    6. That man is a high/highly respected doctor.
    7. Our new house is near/nearly the city centre.
    8. Which of these dresses do you like most/mostly?
    9. I had hardly/hard finished cooking when the guests arrived.
    10. The girls were pretty/ prettily dressed for the party.
    11. I got this lipstick free/freely with a magazine.
    12. He is always late/lately for work.
    13. The exam was pretty/prettily difficult, but we all passed.
    14. She was deep/deeply absorbed in her work and didn’t hear me call.
    15. Her hair blew free/freely around her head in the breeze.

    1. two-syllable or compound adverbs take more/most. carefully - more carefully - most carefully

    Note: clever, common, cruel, friendly, gentle, pleasant, polite, shallow, simple, stupid, quiet can form their comparatives and superlatives either with -er/-est or with more/most.

    1. Irregular forms:

    good - better - best / bad - worse - worst / much - more - most / little - less - least / far - farther/further - farthest/furthest / many/lots - more – most

    Put the adjectives in brackets into the  comparative or superlative form, adding  any necessary words.

    1. A: Did you enjoy the film?

    B: Yes. It was _________   (funny) film I’ve ever seen.

    1. A: James is very tall.

    B: Yes. He's         ______ (tall) boy in our class.

    1. A: Was it a good party?

    B: Yes. I left far ______ (late) I had intended to.

    1. A: Did you like the black dress?

    B: Yes, but it was far ________ (expensive) the blue one.

    1. A: Why do you want to go to Spain?

    B: Because it’s much ________ (warm) England.

    1. A: Do you enjoy your job?

    B: Oh, yes. It’s _______ (good) job I’ve ever had.

    1. A: If you need any  ________ (far) help, just ask me.

    B: Thank you. That’s very kind of you.

    1. A: My teacher is very clever.

    B: Yes. She’s _______ (intelligent) woman I’ve ever met.

    1. A: Dinosaurs were ________ (big) animals.

    В: I know. They were enormous.

    1. A: How much did you pay for that bag?

    B: £5. It was __________ (cheap) one I could find.

    1. A: That exam was really difficult.

    В: I agree. It was a lot ________ (difficult) I had expected.

    1. A: Have you heard James playing the piano lately?

    B: Yes, but he doesn’t seem to be getting __________ (good).

     Fill in the gaps with the correct form off the adjective/adverb in brackets.

    1. I like living in the country. It’s a lot __________ (peaceful) than the city.
    2. I felt very ill last week, but I’m slightly _________ (good) now.
    1. I can’t hear you. Could you speak a little _________ (loud) please?
    2. Steven is ________ (tall) boy in the basketball team.
    3. This computer is very old. I need something ________ (modern).
    4. The new library is far ________ (close) to my house than the old one.
    5. Jane’s new haircut makes her look much ___________ (attractive).
    6. This jacket was by far ________ (expensive) in the shop.

    Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative form, adding any necessary words.

    Dear Anita,        

    I’m writing to tell you about the auction I went to last weekend. It was held in 1) _______  (large) house in the village and the items being sold were far 2) _______ (beautiful) I had expected.

    I saw 3) ________ (pretty) vase I’ve ever seen, but it was also 4) ___________ (expensive) item there, so I couldn’t afford to buy it. I bid for some chairs. They were far 5) ________ (nice) mine, but unfortunately someone made a 6)        _________ (good) offer than me and

    I couldn’t afford to make a 7) ________ (high) bid.

    In the end, I bought 8) _______ (small) item of all, although it was not 9) ________ (cheap) of all! It was a gold locket, which I’m going to give to my 10) ________ (old) daughter on her 18th birthday. I think it’s 11) ________ (lovely) necklace I’ve ever seen and it was 12) _______ (easy) to carry home than a set of chairs!

    I enjoyed the auction very much and hope to go to  another one soon. Perhaps next time you’ll come with me. Write soon and tell me all your news.

    Love,        

    Maggie

    Write the correct form off the comparative or superlative and complete the sentences  with your own ideas.

    1. In my opinion, the tiger is the most dangerous... (dangerous) animal of all.
    2. ____ is ______ (nice) place I have ever been to.
    3. ________ (sweet) sugar.
    4. I can _______ (good), but I can even        ______ (good).
    5. I think ___________ (difficult) subject of all.
    6. ___________ (valuable) rubies.
    7. ____________ (healthy) food of all.
    8. _____________ (efficient) old ones.
    9. ______________(intelligent) person I have ever met.
    10. ______________ (expensive) silver jewellery.

    Types of comparisons:

    1. (half/twice/three times) as + adjective + as (to show that two people or things are similar/different in some way). In negative sentences we use not as/so ... as. This coat is as expensive as that one.
    2. less + adjective + than (expresses the difference between two people or things). The opposite is more ... than. Tom is less rich than his friend Tony.
    3. the least + adjective + of/in (compares one person or thing to two or more people or things in the same group).The opposite is the most ... of/in. She is the least hard-working person in our office.
    4. much/а lot/far/a iittle/a bit/slightly + comparative (expresses the degree of difference between two people or things), lack is slightly taller than Jeremy.
    5. comparative and comparative (to show that something is increasing or decreasing). It gets warmer and warmer every day.
    6. the + comparative ..., the + comparative (shows that two things change together, or that one thing depends on another thing). The more you study now, the less you will have to study at the end of the school year.
    7. by far + the + superlative (emphasises the difference between one person or thing and two or more people or things in the same group). Last winter was by far the coldest we have ever had.

    Complete the sentences as in the example:

    1.  She gets more and more beautiful _________ every day. (beautiful)
    2. My toothache is getting        ____________ . (painful)                
    3. Your ability to remember things gets ___________ as the years go by. (bad)
    4.  The meteor was coming        __________ the Earth. ( near)

    Complete each sentence as in the example:

    1. (It is dangerous.) The faster you drive, the more dangerous it is        
    2. (Your marks will be good.) The harder you work, ________________
    3. (I feel fit.) The more I exercise, ____________________
    4. (We’ll get there late.) The later we leave, ___________________
    5. (It is quiet.) The further we are from the city, ____________________
    6. (The roads became busy.) The nearer we got to the city centre, ___________

    Fill in: very or much.

    William has just bought a 1) _______ nice new car. It is 2) ________ faster than his old one and 3) _______ more comfortable. He is 4) _________ proud of it as it is 5) ________more stylish than any of his friends' cars. And so it should be, because it was 6) ________ expensive indeed. He spent 7) __________ more money on it than he could afford and his friends think he was 8) __________ foolish to buy it.

    Fill in the blanks with the correct forms. Add “the”, “than ”or “of” where necessary.

    Last night I saw 1) the worst (bad) film I’ve ever seen. It was even 2)        _______ (bad) _____ Rocky IV. It lasted 3) _________ (long) _______ three hours and, believe me, it was 4) ________ (boring) three hours        _________ my life. The acting was dull, and the story even 5) _________ (dull). I was very disappointed, as I’d left work 6) _______ (early)        _______ usual especially to see it. My friend had recommended it, saying it was 7) ________ ,         (good) film he had seen for months. I won’t listen to him again. He has 8) _______ (strange) taste _________ anyone I know.

    Fill in the blanks, as in the examples.

    1. The noise got ___________ (loud) until I couldn’t bear it any longer.
    2. ____________ (hard) he works, _____________ (successful) he becomes.
    3. It rained _______ (hard) until the river burst its banks.
    4.  _______ (cold) it got, _________ (many) clothes they had to put on to keep warm.
    5. Jake ran _________ (fast) and won the race.
    6. _________ (high) he jumped _________ (loud) the crowd cheered.
    7. Cars are getting __________ (cheap) as the years go by.
    8.  __________ (young) you are,        _________ (easy) you find it to learn things.
    9. __________ (many) people are opening their own businesses these days.
    10.  _________ (old) he gets, _________ (tall) he grows.

    Cross out the unnecessary word.

    1. He is much more taller than his brother.
    2. As time went by, I got the more and more nervous.
    3. I hardly not know anyone in my new job.
    4. Going on holiday abroad is very more exciting than staying at home.
    5. This flat is so bigger than the one we saw yesterday.
    6. Her brooch is twice as more expensive as mine.
    7. The more time you spend with your children, the more than they appreciate it.
    8. This is the most funniest book I’ve ever read.
    9. This chewing gum tastes as like cinnamon.
    10. She invited the most of her friends to a barbecue.
    11. Your handbag is the same colour as to mine.
    12. He is regarded as like the best author of the century.
    13. The weather is becoming hotter and even hotter.
    14. Talking to him was as like talking to a brick wall.
    15. It was a quite an interesting lecture.
    16. Paul is as much old as Michael.
    17. This ring is by far prettier than the other one we saw.
    18. This house is the less expensive than the others.

    Read the text and fill in the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space.

    New York City is one of 1) _______  largest cities 2) ______ the world. It is also one of the most densely populated, with an estimated 7,400,000 inhabitants. Manhattan is the 3) __________ popular area of the city with tourists and has 4)  __________ interesting sights. There is also 5) ________a large number of businesses in this area of the city, including the head offices of some of the world’s leading companies. New York’s subway system provides transport for more 6) _________ 33% of the city’s work force.

    New York is also regarded 7)  __________ a centre of entertainment. Broadway is the scene of many box-office hits, Carnegie Hall is one of the 8) _________ famous concert halls in the world and the city is also the home of several opera and ballet companies.

    With 9) __________ choice of food, entertainment and social life than any other city, it is 10) __________ any wonder that people flock to New York to experience life in the Big Apple.

    1. Choose the correct answer.
    1. Film budgets are getting        __________ as actors are paid more.

    A as high                         C higher and higher

    В the highest               D higher than

    1. Walking to the cinema took ___________  I thought it would.

    A as half as long              C half as long

    В half as long as              D as long as half

    1. MP3 players are definitely ____________  portable CD players.

    A best of                       C the better of

    В better than             D best than

    1. Cycling is ___________ than parachuting.

    A less dangerous             C the least dangerous

    В least dangerous             D least danger

    1. ‘Titanic’ was ___________ film ever made.

    A most profitable                   C the most profitable

    В the more profitable       D more profitable

    1. The more you exercise __________ you will feel.

    A the more good                        C        the better

    В the more better                        D        the best

    1. This designer jacket is __________ expensive item of clothing I’ve ever bought.

    A by far most                        C        the most by far

    В most by far                        D        by far the most

    1. This comedian is __________ than anyone else.

    A much funnier                     C more funnier

    В as funny                               D the funniest

    1. ‘Superman Returns’ is __________ as any other superhero film.

    A twice as better                     C        twice as good

    В twice as best                     D        better twice

    I 0 This diet is by far _________ one that I have tried.

    A most easy                        C more easy

    В any easier                                D the easiest

    Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative form, adding any necessary words.

    1. A: Mark is very confident.

    B: Yes. He is certainly _________ (confident) his brother.

    1. A: Did you enjoy your holiday?

    B: Oh, yes. It was         _________ (good) holiday I’ve ever had.

    1. A: You’re late home tonight.

    В: I know. The work took _________ (long) I had expected.

    1. A: Did you like the brown shoes?

    B: Yes, but they were by far _________ (expensive) shoes in the shop.

    1. A: Have you put the heating on?

    B: Yes. I’m much         __________ (warm) now.

    1. A: Do you like your new job?

    B: Yes. The staff are __________ (friendly) people I’ve ever met.

    1. A: The new cinema is great.

    B: Yes. It’s         __________ (big) cinema I’ve ever been to.

    1. A: Your new car looks good.

    B: It is. It’s much         _________ (fast) my old car.

    1. A: Thank you for the information.

    B: No problem. If you want any __________ (far) information, just ask.

    1. A: This bag is very cheap.

    B: Yes, but look. This one is even _________ (cheap).

    1. A: Why are we going this way?

    B: Because it’s _______ (short) route to the beach.

    1. A: The children are so noisy today.

    В: I know. I wish they would be ________ (quiet).

    Complete the sentences with two to five words, including the word in bold.

    1. I’ve never heard such a silly excuse.

    the         It’s _______________ I’ve ever heard.

    1. Jane’s car was cheaper than Adam’s.

    less      Jane’s car _____________________ Adam’s.

    1. As we got closer, I became more nervous.

    the      The closer we got        , __________________I became.

    1. Tom has bought the same number of sweets as Lucy,

    many            Tom has bought         ____________________ Lucy.

    1. Ben is smarter than Steve.

    as        Steve         ________________________ Ben.

    1. Can’t you eat any more than that?

    most         Is that __________________ you can eat?

    1. As I study more, I get better grades.

    the        The more I study,         ____________________ I get.

    1. I’ve never known such an independent young woman.

    the      She’s         ____________________ I’ve ever known.

    1. Josie has the same number of CDs as David.

    many           Josie has ______________ David.

    1. Keith is the best tennis player of all.

    than        Keith        ________________________ anyone else.

    TEST 1

    TEST 2


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