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    Выступление на открытых Шёгреновских чтениях моего ученика 10 класса по теме:"Personal names in English and Ossetic"
    творческая работа учащихся (10 класс) на тему

    Индиана Борисовна Тибилова

    Данная научная работа посвящена личным именам в русском и осетинском языках. Это сопоставительное исследование. Работа состоит из вступления, теоретической и практических частей,  заключения и библиографии.

    Нами сделана попытка проведения сравнительного анализа имен собственных в английском и русском языках.

    Теоретическая и практическая значимость исследования в том, что оно обладает важным образовательным потенциалом для школьников, имеет развивающее начало. Работа заняла призовые места на городских и республиканских научных конфиренциях.

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    «Ежегодный городской конкурс

    научно-исследовательских работ

    «Хетагуровские чтения»

    Направление: лингвистика

    Название работы: «English and Ossetian personal names»

    Автор работы: Дедегкаев Солтан

    Место выполнения работы МБОУ СОШ №26

    Научный руководитель: Тибилова Индиана Борисовна,

                                              учитель английского языка высшей

                                              квалификационной категории

    Владикавказ 2014

                                 

                               

                            Contents:

    1. Introduction……………………………………………2
    2. The main part………………………………………….3
    1. The origin of the names…………………….3-4
    2. Types of names………………………………….5-9        
    3. English surnames……………………………….10-13
    4. Ossetian system of names…………………..14
    5. The origin of ancient Ossetian names….14
    6. Ossetians names with Christianity………15
    7. Names connected with Muslim…………..15
    1. Conclusions………………………………………………16
    2. List of Literature……………………………………….17
    3. Appendix………………………………………………….18-20

    Introduction

    System of personal names is an important part of each national culture. We are surrounded by different people with different names but we rarely try to find out the meaning of names. This topic is chosen in order to show that system of personal names is a unique and wonderful source of information not only about every human being. Without doubt, it is a soul of every nation. Names are history: history of people, countries and states. They show evolution of cultures, their mutual communication, deep changes of mentalities and severe clashes of civilizations. The importance of name was always huge. People believed that name of human being could determine his life, bring him happiness or sorrow, make him well – known or obscure. That’s why personal names are not only reflection of nation’s mentality, history and culture. They are also a little magic, connecting people with some things they do not see.

    1.Ossetian and English names are very different but they also have some structural similarities. Both nations speak Indoeuropean languages. It is a fact that makes them close to each other. English system of names has traces of Anglo – Saxon, Norman, Christian and European influence.

    2.Ossetian names show all changes in our history; they are Alanian, Russian, Caucasian. English and Ossetian names are expression of different cultures based on one Indoeuropean group of languages. In this presentation we tried to follow the main changes in two nominal systems. Modern world is very turbulent but anyway it is crucially important to know the roots of your nation. It is also a factor that underlines the actuality of chosen topic. Various materials from books, magazines and Internet were used while preparing this report.

    The main part

    Full name in English – speaking countries consists of first name, second name and last name. As first and second are used not only common and traditional names but also last names. As such last names are often taken those of close relatives, famous people and outstanding historical actors.

    Personal English names generally used today are very different. They consist of groups of old and modern names. One can find traditional English names and those taken from other languages. Modern English names can strongly differ structurally and semantically. The reason of such difference is the next : population of Great Britain is a product of mix between various ethnical groups – Iberian people that lived here in ancient times, Celtic tribes, Angles, Saxons Scandinavians and then Franco – Normans. In English for this reason there is a man’s name «Abraham», which is widely – spread in English – speaking countries and is at least 4000 years old, and woman’s name Sonya, taken from Russian languages only in 20th years of 20 century.

    Anglo – Saxons like all over ancient Germans had only one name which could be as structurally simple(Froda – «wise, old», or Hwita – «white»), so structurally complicated ( Aethel – Beald  - «noble, very good, excellent + bold, boldness », or Eadgar – «possession, estate, property, rich + spear»). Gradually simple names were displaced by two – componential. The meaning of some old – English names is impossible to connect with the meaning of components it consist of. Other names are more understandable for modern reader.

    Components  of   Anglo – Saxon names were taken from a special list of nominal words. People believed  that «good» names magically helped those who carried them and gave wealth  ? health etc. Such names included word meaning «warrior», «good» , «well known». Anglo-Saxon names differed very little from nicknames given to people. Often was used typical for German names «-ing» suffix, which showed that the name bearer was the offspring of person indicated in the other part of a name. For example Bruning-son of Brun. Only 8% of English names today have their original in old Anglo – Saxon period.
    Norman invasion had a very strong effect on the history of English people and on their names, too. When the Duke of Normandy William became the King of England, all important civil and church positions were taken by people who spoke Norman- French language. Consequently Anglo- Saxon names were replaced by those traditional for conquerors (for example, William, Robert, Richard). Only several Anglo- Saxon names such as Edgar, Edward, Mildred survived this period.

    During the time after Norman conquest of England names- nicknames became part of family names. Replacement of old Anglo- Saxon names was also encouraged by the influence of Christian religion. Its expansion started in 12th

    century with first missionaries of Pope coming to England. Church schools and monasteries became the centers of Christian culture. Personal names from the Bible became more popular though the majority of people did not understand their meanings. Such names were mostly used among royal family and nobility of England, peasantry gave their Pagan names. Only in 16th century Christian names became dominant in the system of English personal names. One of the reasons was obligatory registration of children taking baptism. Christian names though underwent some changes connected with people’s traditions. Maria became Mary, old Jewish name Johanan became Jones and John. Woman's name Johanna has bits origin in old French and gave birth to three other separate names – Jean, Johan and Jane. The most popular names in England in 16 – 18 centuries were William, John, Thomas for men, Elizabeth and Mary for women. From the 18 century official last name of child born started to be inherited from father.

    During the Reformation in Western Europe in 16th century people started to use names of different saints not written in Bible, such as Barbara, Christopher and other. Personal names from Old Testament, such as Amos, Sarah, Joseph and others became widely – spread, mostly among puritans. In the first half of 17th century were forced to leave Britain and settled in America. That’s why today names from Old Testament are more common in USA than in England. English literature also had a very strong effect on English names. Famous writers and poets created many brilliant characters whose names became very popular among Englishmen and Americans. For example, Pamela – character of a novel «Arcadia» written by Sidney, Stella – sonnet character of the same author. Historical novels of Walter Scott gave birth to a row of forgotten names, Alice was popular for a long time thanks to Lewis Carroll.Most of full names have so called «derivatives» or short forms used among relatives, friends and close people: Benjamin – Ben, Christopher – Chris. Short forms of names were widely spread among Anglo – Saxons, too. Name Eda came from Edwine. Norman conquerors brought to England diminutive suffixes of Old – French language.

    Below are the 100 most popular

    English names for boys.

    1. Oliver

    2. Jack

    3. Harry

    4. Alfie        

    5. Charlie        

    6. Thomas        

    7. William        

    8. Joshua

    9. George        

    10. James

    11. Daniel        

    12. Jacob

    13. Ethan        

    14. Samuel        

    15. Joseph        

    16. Dylan        

    17. Mohammed

    18. Noah        

    19. Lucas        

    20. Oscar        

    21. Alexander

    22. Benjamin        

    23. Max        

    24. Archie        

    25. Riley        

    26. Jayden        

    27. Lewis        

    28. Logan        

    29. Jake        

    30. Ryan        

    31. Muhammad        

    32. Tyler        

    33. Liam        

    34. Henry        

    35. Finley        

    36. Leo        

    37. Isaac        

    38. Luke        

    39. Adam        

    40. Callum        

    41. Matthew        

    42. Harrison        

    43. Edward        

    44. Connor

    45. Freddie        

    46. Mason        

    47. Harvey        

    48. Nathan

    49. Jamie        

    50. Theo        

    51. Zachary        

    52. Alex        

    53. Michael        

    54. Toby

    55. Aaron        

    56. Kai        

    57. Harley        

    58. Sebastian        

    59. Owen        

    60. Leon        

    61. Cameron        

    62. Charles        

    63. Ollie        

    64. David

    65. Rhys        

    66. Aiden        

    67. Mohammad        

    68. Finlay

    69. Louis        

    70. Luca        

    71. Reuben        

    72. Kian        

    73. Ben        

    74. Kyle        

    75. Louie        

    76. Evan        

    77. Ashton        

    78. Gabriel

    79. Bailey        

    80. Hayden

    81. Joel        

    82. Arthur        

    83. Bobby        

    84. Reece        

    85. Elliot        

    86. Jude        

    87. Caleb        

    88. Stanley        

    89. Kieran        

    90. Robert        

    91. Aidan        

    92. Brandon

    93. Sam        

    94. John        

    95. Frederick        

    96. Jenson        

    97. Taylor        

    98. Dexter        

    99. Kayden        

    100. Bradley

    Below are the 100 most popular English names for girls.

    1. Olivia        

    2. Sophie        

    3. Emily        

    4. Lily        

    5. Amelia        

    6. Jessica        

    7. Ruby

    8. Chloe        

    9. Grace

    10. Evie        

    11. Ava        

    12. Isabella        

    13. Mia        

    14. Maisie        

    15. Daisy        

    16. Poppy        

    17. Isabelle        

    18. Ella        

    19. Freya        

    20. Charlotte        

    21. Lucy        

    22. Isla        

    23. Megan        

    24. Scarlett        

    25. Holly        

    26. Imogen        

    27. Sophia        

    28. Phoebe        

    29. Ellie        

    30. Summer        

    31. Hannah        

    32. Millie        

    33. Lola        

    34. Abigail        

    35. Erin        

    36. Lacey        

    37. Eva        

    38. Amy        

    39. Lilly        

    40. Katie

    41. Jasmine        

    42. Molly        

    43. Alice        

    44. Layla        

    45. Brooke        

    46. Lexi        

    47. Sienna        

    48. Emma        

    49. Elizabeth        

    50. Leah        

    51. Gracie        

    52. Amber        

    53. Matilda        

    54. Florence        

    55. Amelie        

    56. Georgia        

    57. Maya        

    58. Isabel        

    59. Bethany        

    59. Rosie        

    61. Eleanor        

    62. Sofia

    63. Anna        

    63. Paige        

    65. Faith        

    66. Caitlin        

    67. Madison        

    68. Lexie        

    69. Hollie

    70. Lauren        

    71. Emilia

    72. Keira        

    73. Skye        

    74. Esme        

    75. Isobel        

    76. Zara        

    77. Julia        

    78. Niamh        

    79. Tia        

    80. Aimee        

    81. Maddison        

    82. Rebecca        

    83. Sarah

    84. Zoe        

    85. Martha        

    86. Harriet        

    87. Evelyn        

    88. Tilly        

    89. Annabelle        

    90. Rose        

    91. Maria        

    92. Nicole        

    93. Eliza        

    93. Heidi        

    95. Laila        

    96. Aisha        

    97. Alexandra        

    98. Libby        

    99. Maryam        

    100. Maisy        

                              English surnames

    English surnames  as we know them today -- family names passed down intact from father to son to grandson -- began in England as early as the eleventh century. Such hereditary names were not universally prevalent and settled, however, prior to the era of the Reformation in sixteenth century England. It is conjectured that the introduction of parish registers in 1538 was a great influence in this, as a person entered under one surname at baptism would not be likely to be married under another name, and buried under a third. Some areas of England came later to the use of surnames, however. It was not until the late seventeenth century that many families in Yorkshire and Halifax took permanent surnames.

    Origins of English Last Names

    Surnames in England generally developed from four major sources:

    Patronymic & Matronymic Surnames - These are surnames derived from baptismal or Christian names to indicate family relationship or descent. Some baptismal or given names have become surnames without any change in form. Others added an ending. son may have formed his surname by adding -s (more common in the South and West of England) or -son (preferred in the northern half of England) to his father's name. The latter -son suffix was also sometimes added to the mother's name. English surnames ending in -ing (from the British engi, "to bring forth," and -kin generally indicate a patronymic or family name as well.

    Occupational Surnames - Many English surnames developed from a person's job or trade. Three common English surnames -- Smith, Wright and Taylor -- are excellent examples of this. A name ending in -man or -er usually implies such a trade name, as in Chapman (shopkeeper), Barker (tanner) and Fiddler. On occasion a rare occupational name can provide a clue to the family's origin. For example, Dymond (dairymen) are commonly from Devon and Arkwright (maker of arks or chests) are generally from Lancashire.

    Descriptive Surnames - Based on a unique quality or physical feature of the individual, these surnames often developed from nicknames or pet names. Most refer to an individual's appearance - color, complexion, or physical shape - such as Armstrong. A descriptive surname may also refer to an individual's personal or moral characteristics, such as Goodchild, Puttock (greedy) or Wise.

    Geographical or Local Surnames - These are names derived from the location of the homestead from which the first bearer and his family lived, and are generally the most common origin of English surnames. They were first introduced into England by the Normans, many of whom were known by the name of their personal estate. Thus, many English surnames derive from the name of an actual town, county, or estate. County names in Great Britain, such as Cheshire, Kent and Devon have been commonly adopted as surnames. A second class of local surnames derived from cities and towns, such as Hertford, Carlisle and Oxford. Other local surnames derive from descriptive landscape features such as hills, woods, and streams which describe the original bearer's residence. This is the origin of surnames such as Sykes (marshy stream), Bush and Attwood (near a wood). Surnames which begin with the prefix At- can especially be attributed as a name with local origins. By- was also sometimes used as a prefix for local names.

               The most common English surnames

    1. Smith (От англ. smith – «кузнец»)
    2. Jones (От англ. имени John)
    3. Williams (От англ. имени William)
    4. Brown (От англ. brown – «коричневый; смуглый»)
    5. Taylor (От англ. tailor – «портной»)
    6. Davies (От англ. имени Davi, Davie, David)
    7. Wilson (От англ. имени Will (William) + son)
    8. Evans  (От англ. имени Evan –англизир. формы валлийского имени Ifan)
    9. Thomas (От англ. имени Thomas)
    10.  Johnson (От англ. имени John + son)
    11.  Roberts (От англ. имени son of Robert)
    12.  Robinson (От англ. имени son of Robin)
    13.  Thompson (От англ. имени son of the man known as Thom, Thomp, Thompkin)
    14.  Wright (От англ. craftsman, builder)
    15.  Walker (От англ. who "walked" on raw)

    Ossetian system of names.

    Ossetian language belongs to the Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. Preserving the linguistic features, brings it to the specified languages and including with Russians, he was subjected to the influence of the Caucasian languages. This is reflected in the Ossetian own names.

    Ossetian own names according to their origin can be divided into three groups.

    The first group consists of native Ossetian names. Some of them are easy to identify, as they have kept contact with the individual words in modern English Ahshar «courageа» Shagane «black dogа» Zareta «singе» Kafeta «danceе» Zarina «gold» Avdan «there are seven of black girl».

    However, the meaning of most of the native Ossetian names are difficult or impossible to already explained from the modern language of Ossetians. To such names includeи Gabonо, Dabe, Decca, Hazbi, Hetag, etc.

    It is possible that the major part of them inherited from the languages of the peoples, with whom communicated the ancestors of the Ossetians in ancient times. It is also likely that some of these words when something sounded a little differently.

    Changes, however, is not so much the sound of names, how many of their composition. Many of the names cease to be used with the change of generations. Others will appear with the arrival of the new generations.

    The differences that exist between Ossetian dialects had an impact on their own names which led to the appearance of two variants of some of the names. For example: Chermen and Kermenе, etc. Some of these names are included in the list in both versions.

    The second group consists of the names associated with the Christian religion. Christianity, apparentlyу to be spread among the ancestors of the Ossetians still with X in. However, the massive communion of Ossetians to Christianity is observed in the end of XVIII-beginning of XIX century.

    If girls were born one after another and boys but not girls were expected they were given such names as Nalcuda (not needed), Tsamancud (not needed), Mamala (miserable).

    In families where boys didn’t survive they were given names denoting some quality or they were given animal names. Shaykudz (black dog), Gabila (a puppy), Gady (a cat), Mist (a mouse). And if  children were not born for a long time people were glad to have even girls. And they were given such names as Farna (happiness), Yarseta (be loved), Fardig (a bin). In this way children were diffended illnesses.

    Very often new born kids were given the names of  famous people, heroes of  «Nartsky Legends». But along with the official name always appeared the name given by the kids mother and sometimes this name became the main one.


    The most common Ossetian male names.

    Абхаз
    Абисал
    Азамат
    Аким
    Алан
    Алихан
    Алмахсит
    Александр
    Амурхан
    Асабе
    Асаго
    Асах
    Аслан
    Асламбек
    Асламурза
    Аслангирей
    Астемир
    Аузби
    Афако
    Ахболат
    Ахмат
    Ацамаз
    Амзор
    Ахсар
    Бакке
    Борис
    Василий
    Батмурза
    Батрадз
    Батырбек
    Бачче
    Баччири
    Бекмурза
    Бексолтан
    Бесагур
    Бечмирза
    Бимболат
    Болат
    Боци
    Вано
    Васо
    Габо
    Габола
    Гагудз
    Газак
    Гайши
    Гаппо
    Гацыp
    Георгий
    Дакко
    Данил
    Давид
    Дабе
    Дакка
    Дахцыко
    Дебола
    Дрис
    Дудар
    Гери
    Герихан
    Дзабо
    Дзамболат
    Дзантемир
    Дзанхот
    Дзаххот
    Дзарахмат
    Ельмирза
    Заур
    Сослан

    The most common female names.

    Агунда

    Азау

    Азаухан

    Аза

    Аминат

    Аниса

    Анна

    Асиат

    Афасса

    Ацырухс

    Венера

    Вера

    Даухан

    Дибахан

    Дунетхан

    Дзанатхан

    Дзерасса

    Езета

    Заира

    Замира

    Замират

    Зарема

    Зарета

    Зариффа

    Зали

    Залина

    Зарина

    Земфира

    Зина

    Зоя

    Кябахан

    Ксения

    Елизавета

    Лиза

    Любовь

    Людмила

    Масо

    Мадина

    Мадинат

    Мисурат

    Надежда

    Наида

    Ненуца

    Нина

    Паса

    Поли

    Разиат

    Рахимат

    Римма

    Роза

    Салимат

    Саниат

    Серафима

    Сима

    Соня

    Софья

    Таира

    Таисия

    Тамара

    Тереза

    Фаризат

    Фатима

    Фатимат

    Феруза

    Фуза

    Хадизат

    Хангуасса

    Ханиффа

    Ханисиат

    Хызмыдe

    Чабахан

    Conclusions

    The adventure through English and Ossetian system of names is an exciting one. In conclusion it is important to say that this adventure actually has no end. Names change with times and epochs, they are living organisms. Some of them die, others will appear and become popular.

     

    Many Ossetian names, for example, that were widely spread a century ago, now seem to us very strange. Large amount of old English names can be found only in books. This process of death and birth is inevitable and reflects the law of evolution.

    It was shown how names change with changes of historical paths of nations. Nobody can foresee Ossetia and England in two or three hundred years. Sure, some of modern popular names will become very rare and others will take their place.

    Names are perfect reflection of eternal cycle of history. It never stops. System of names is studied thoroughly all over the world. There is no nation which doesn’t understand its importance.

     Some historical facts actually can be found out only through names. These are the reasons why the chosen topic is so exciting.

    Name is a destiny of people, culture and nation. Knowing history of nominal system means knowing ways, traditions and mental development of cultures it is a part of. Names are probably the only full expression for the nature of things.

              List of Literature

    1. Bardsley C. W. «Curiosities of Puritan nomenclature»
    2. Hornby A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. -  Oxford: Oxford University Press
    3. Kurilovich E. «Studies in Linguistics»
    4. Morton A. L. «A people's history of England»
    5. Murzin L.N. «The syntactic derivation»
    6. Nikonov  V.A. «Geography of names»
    7. Nikonov V. A. «Personal names in the past»
    8. Reaney P. H. «The origin of English surnames»
    9. Ribakin A. I. «Vocabulary of English personal names»
    10. Superanskaya A. V. «Structure of the personal name»
    11. Tenvik G. «Old English bynames»
    12. The Pocket Oxford Dictionary of Current English / Seventh Edition Edited by  R.E. Allen. - Oxford: Clarendon Press
    13. Vinogradov V. V. «The history of words»
    14. Wilson S. «The means of naming»
    15.  Withycombe E. G. «The Oxford dictionary of English Christian names»

     

                       


    Appendix

    English personal names generally include a given name, a middle name, and a surname.        

    First name / given name (also, forename, Christian name) is a name that is given at birth and stands first in a person's full name, e.g., John, Peter, William, Anne, Elizabeth, Mary.        

    Middle name is the second name of a person. It stands between the first name and the family name. The middle name is usually represented by the middle initial in full names, for example, Alan Charles Jones or Alan C. Jones; Laura Tracey Edison or Laura T. Edison.        

    Last name / surname / family name is family name used by the members of the same family, for example, Smith, Higgins, Green, Appleby, Williamson, Mackenzie.

    Nickname is a shortened or diminutive form of a given name, for example, Peter – Pete; William – Bill, Will; Anne – Annie, Nancy; Elizabeth – Betty, Liz; Louise – Lou. Many nicknames are also used as given names: Jack as a nickname for John and Jack as a given name in its own right; Molly as a nickname for Mary and Molly as an independent given name. Nicknames include pet names, for example, Billy, Willie, Betsy, Lizzie, Lulu.

    Male and female names        

    Many names can show masculine or feminine gender in their endings. For example, the names Alexandra, Antonia, Bertha, Christina, Eugenia, Frederica, Julia, Maria, Paula, Sophia, Victoria are clearly female names because of the feminine ending A or IA, while Alexander, Albert, Arthur, Christopher, David, Frederick, James, John, Julius, Paul, Richard, Victor are obviously male names because of their masculine endings ER, OR, US (or absence of the endings A, IA).Often, the endings IE and I mark the feminine forms of names, while Y marks the masculine forms of names, for example, Nicky as a man's name and Nikki, Nickie, Nicky as women's names. But there are many nicknames that use the endings IE and Y for both male and female names: Billie (m./f.), Billy (m./f.), Bobbie (m./f.), Bobby (m./f.), Freddie (m./f.), Freddy (m./f.). And there are quite a few male and female names with the ending Y. For example, Anthony, Emery, Gregory, Henry, Jeremy, Percy, Timothy are male names, while Daisy, Dorothy, Emily, Margery, Tiffany, Valery are female names.        

    If girls were born one after another and boys but not girls were expected they were given such names as Nalcuda (not needed), Tsamancud (not needed), Mamala (miserable).

    In families where boys didn’t survive they were given names denoting some quality or they were given animal names. Shaykudz (black dog), Gabila (a puppy), Gady (a cat), Mist (a mouse). And if  children were not born for a long time people were glad to have even girls. And they were given such names as Farna (happiness), Yarseta (be loved), Fardig (a bin). In this way children were diffended illnesses.

    Very often new born kids were given the names of  famous people, heroes of  «Nartsky Legends». But along with the official name always appeared the name given by the kids mother and sometimes this name became the main one.

    Full name in English – speaking countries consists of first name, second name and last name. As first and second are used not only common and traditional names but also last names. As such last names are often taken those of close relatives, famous people and outstanding historical actors.

    Personal English names generally used today are very different. They consist of groups of old and modern names. One can find traditional English names and those taken from other languages. Modern English names can strongly differ structurally and semantically. The reason of such difference is the next : population of Great Britain is a product of mix between various ethnical groups – Iberian people that lived here in ancient times, Celtic tribes, Angles, Saxons Scandinavians and then Franco – Normans. In English for this reason there is a man’s name «Abraham», which is widely – spread in English – speaking countries and is at least 4000 years old, and woman’s name Sonya, taken from Russian languages only in 20th years of 20 century. 


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