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    English Newspapers

    Part I

    УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

    Topical Area: The Media / British Television

    Newspaper Backup: The Times Saturday August 25, 1990, London

    Text Warning of decline in TV standards

    by Melinda Wittstock

    Pre-reading

    There is dissatisfaction with TV standards in a deregulated market. How can the quality of television be upheld? What kind of programmes are you In favour of?

    Warning of decline in TV standards

    Verity Lambert, the doyenne of  independent television producers, gave a warning last night of certain decline in the quality of British television in a deregulated market unless executives had the courage to back their programme makers.

    Opening the annual Edinburgh International Television Festival with the James MacTaggart Memorial Lecture, Ms Lambert told an audience of television executives and programme makers that the most successful television programmes had been made "only because someone had the guts to ignore the rules.

    Ms Lambert, best known as the first producer of Dr Who and for bringing Minder, Rock Follies and Edward and Mrs Simpson to the screen, said that the BBC, ITV and Channel 4 must "stand firm and not panic" when confronted with Ming ratings.

    "If Channel 3 and the BBC go down-market in order; to try: to attract larger ratings; in; the long run they will not win the battle,” she said. “The audience will now have diversity of choice, and eventually they win switch over — or switch off

    She said that the Independent Television Commission (ITC due to replace the  IBA  when the Broadcasting Bill receives royal assent in November  must insist that franchise holders not only have a commitment to make documentaries and current affairs programmes, but also a commitment to schedule them at peak times. The Lords has, by an amendment added such a requirement to the bill, but the government hopes to overturn it in the Commons.  

    Ms Lambert said that documentaries and current affairs programmes need not be seen by ITV companies as an inevitable loss of revenue, pointing to the high ratings of This Week and World in Action which regularly reached between four million and 7 million affluent people a week. Quality could be upheld only if the ITC used its power to take away a franchise if its holder did not live up to standards that were promised during the forthcoming franchise round.                Television executives at the festival will today debate the future of the BBC.

    Skim and scan

    1.Do they mean one and the same thing? ITC ITV companies

    2.Which is the predecessor? ITC IBA

    Comprehension

    1. Finish the statement below with the best ending.

    Ms Lambert is sure that documentaries and current affairs programmes will:

    1. help to attract larger ratings.
    2. be an Inevitable loss of revenue.
    3. improve the quality of British television.
    4. be approved by the government.

    2. Say whether the following statements are true or false according to the text.

    a) The BBC, ITV and Channel 4 are confronted with falling rates.

    b) Channel 3 and the BBC will go down-market in order to try to attract larger ratings.

    c) Franchise holders must have a commitment to make documentaries and current affairs programmes, and even schedule them at peak times.

    d) Living up to standards is necessary in the following franchise round.              

    Vocabulary

    1. Match the words In the box with their correct definitions.

    a) doyennes

    b) executives

    c) franchise holders

    1) persons in business with administrative powers;

    2) senior members of a society, profession, etc.;

    3) persons enjoying a special right.

    2. Find words in the text which have the following meaning:

    variety (paragraph 4), undertaking (paragraph 5), income (paragraph 6),  abundant (paragraph 6).

    3.  Fill In the blanks in column A words with prefixes in column 8 to achieve the required meaning mentioned in brackets.

    A                                                                                                   B

    go _____ -market (  low class)                                                     up

    ________ turn the bill (upset)                                                    down

    _______hold quality (support)                                                   over

    Viewpoint

    Now that you have read the article try to answer the questions:

    Does Russian television face the same problems?

    Is it confronted with falling rates and certain decline in its quality?

    How do you fancy its future?

    What do you think about franchising?        


    Topical Area: The Media / British Newspapers

    Newspaper Backup: The Times

    Text Royalty says hello to age of informality  

    by Alan   Hamilton

    Pre-reading

    What   do   you   think   about   the media contribution to public opinion?

    Do you approve  of  image - massage, spin-doctoring and news management or vetting?

    Royalty says hello to age of informality

    Buckingham Palace is looking at ways to modernize the endearingly stuffy Court Circular, says Alan Hamilton

    In its drive to give the Queen a more customer-friendly image, Buckingham Palace has turned its cautiously reformist attention to one of the enduring bastions of royal formality. It can be found most days elsewhere in this newspaper.

    The  Court Circular is  an oddity, possibly even an anachronism. It is a corner of the printed page where the otherwise fluid English language reverts to an 18th-century stiffness with a touch of baroque verbosity.

    In the week that the Palace's new image-massager, Simon Lewis, takes up his post, officials are wondering if it is not time to bring the Court Circular up to date. Anyone who imagines that a press fed by fanciful and often inaccurate speculation about the daily doings of the Royal Family is a modem phenomenon has no sense of history. George III became so irritated by scurrilous royal reporting that, in 1803, he appointed the first Court Newsman to distribute an approved daily account of events at court, an early example of Palace spin-doctoring and news management.

    The Times has been reporting court activities since its foundation in 1785 — accurately, of course. Other titles among the active late 18th-century penny press were less fastidious in their coverage.

    The Court Circular in its present form dates from May 2, 1829, since when it has become mercifully shorter, although it retains a strong flavour of strangely formulaic language. There has however, been some simplification. Years ago according to the circular, the Queen was always "graciously pleased" to receive someone in audience now she simply meets them. But you still do not have an audience with Her Majesty: you have it o/her, or are received in audience, depending on your status.

    The circular is, in fact, a unique record of the Queen's formal working life, published nowadays in The Times, The Daily Telegraph and the Scotsman.  It appeared in The Independent, but in a type size better suited to the footnotes of a pocket Bible.         

    Among the events it chronicles, seven days a week, are investitures: the comings and goings of plenipotentiaries to present their letters of credence and recall; visits by the Queen and by members of the other Royal Households, from the Prince of Wales to Princess Alexandra; and the lunches, dinners, state visits and other paraphernalia of formal monarchical life.

    There is, surprisingly, no other complete daily record of what the Royal Family gets up to. Although collated from the various royal residences by the most up-to-date computer system, the version published in The Times is daily cut out and pasted into a book at the Palace, eventually to find its way to the Royal Archives at Windsor.

    Once it was compiled by the Master of the Household's department: now a member of the staff of the Palace press office well-schooled in the precise phraseology compiles the circular every day, shows it to the Queen for her approval and faxes it to the three newspapers. "It is very formulaic, but some people probably quite like it. Those who read it find it comforting," a Palace spokesman said.

    But what, if anything, to do with it? Palace  officials   have been heard  to complain that there is no adequate chronicle of Royal Family life between the Court Circular and Hello! magazine and that the time may be right for something more appealing and accessible. They are as yet undecided what course to take. "An advantage of the circular is that it shows the great depth and breadth of the Queen's official duties. It also records the activities of the less prominent members of the Royal Family, whose work goes largely unreported in the media," the spokesman said. One avenue being actively  explored a news magazine on  the Palace's hugely popular Internet website. The pages would probably be compiled by an outside news organization.

    Subject to Palace vetting. Although there is this week a hint of weariness of royal news at home, the appetite abroad is apparently inexhaustible. And abroad does not, on the whole, see the Court Circular.

    The magazine is likely to be y. rather more news-driven than the rather stony-faced circular. Where the circular would baldly state that Her Majesty the Queen had held an investiture, the magazine might mention that, among those knighted was, to take a recent example, Elton John.

    She would, of course, have been as graciously pleased as ever to meet him.

    Skim and scan

    1. What British newspapers are mentioned in the article?
    2. What do the years of 1785, 1829  and 1803 signify?

    Comprehension

    Part A

    1.    Match   the   words  with   the  definitions:

    circular

    report of events, etc.

    letter   of  credence

    account of an event from the point of view of one person

    paraphernalia

    close and critical examination

    version

    printed letter of which  many conies are made and distributed  

    plenipotentiary

    letter of introduction

    vetting

    small possessions as attributes

    coverage

    representative having full power to act

     

    2.    In points 1 to 9 each sentence has an under lined word. Below each sentence are four other words marked (A), (B), (C), (D). You are to choose the one word or phrase that best keeps the meaning of the original sentence if it Is substituted for the underlined word.

    1) Buckingham Palace has turned cautiously reformist attention to one of the enduring bastions of royal formality.

    (A)    lasting

    (B)    bearable

    (C)     solid

    (D)    continuous

    2) The Court Circular is an oddity possib1y even an anachronism.

    (A) fancy

    (B) extravagance

    (C) queerness

    (D) convention

    3) It is a corner of the printed page where the otherwise fluid English language reverts to an 18-th-century stiffness with a touch of baroque verbosity.

    (A) hardness

    (B) formality

    (C) firmness

    (D) toughness                                                                                  

    4) George III became so Irritated by scurrilous royal reporting that. In 1803, he anointed the first Court Newsman to distribute an approved dally account of events at court.

    (A) violent

    (B) criticising

    (C) contemptuous

    (D) abusive

    5)  Other titles among the active late 18th-century penny press were less fastidious In their coverage.

    (A) particular  

    (B) quick to find fault

    (C) scrupulous

    (D) outstanding

    6) It appeared for a spell In the Independent, but in a type size better suited to the footnotes of a pocket Bible.

    (A) footprints      

    (B) footmarks

    (C) footsteps

    (D) notes at the foot of a page                                                                                            

    7)  Among the events it chronicles seven days a week, are investitures. 

    (A) Inaugurations

    (B) investments

    (C) ceremonies of endowing with  an  office, rank, power or dignity

    (D) introductions

    8) Although  collated from the various royal residence by the most up-to-date computer system, the version published in The Times is dally cut out and pasted into a book at the Palace.

    (A) carefully compared

    (B) collected

    (C) compiled

    (D) conferred

    9) The tune  may  be  right for something more appealing and accessible.

    (A) urging

    (B) touching   the   feel Inns   or   sympathy

    (C) persisting

    (D) conveying

    Part  B

    1.  Divide the article into main parts and list the divisions.

    2.  Based on the Information in the text, say whether the following statements are true or false:

    1)  The Court Circular records the activities of the less prominent members of the royal family.

    2) It is published in the Times, The Dally Telegraph, The Scotsman and The Independent.

    3)  Royal news Is collated by the most up-to-date computer system to find its way to the Royal Archives at Windsor.                        

    4) The circular is compiled by the Master of the Household's department.

    5) One avenue being actively explored is a news magazine on the Palace's hugely popular Internet website.                                                      

    6) People at home and abroad show the same interest in royal news.

    3. Elaborate on the stylistic effect produced by the lexis in the text.

    the endearing stuff Court Circular, the enduring bastions of royal, formality image-massager, Palace spin-doctoring and news management, a strong flavour of strangely formal monarchical life, a hint of weariness of royal news at home,                    the appetite abroad, news-driven, the rather stony-faced circular, graciously pleased as ever.                                          

    Viewpoint

    1. What does Alan Hamilton think about the Court Circular at present and in future. Characterize his style.

    2. Write your précis of the article.

    3. Are you interested In royal news? Give your reasons.

    4. Write an imaginary interview with a Palace spokesman.


    Topical Area: Environmental Problems

    Newspaper Backup: The Times London, U.S. News & World Report, etc.

    Pre-reading

    What do you think about human interference with nature's process?

     Аrе mаn-made forces always destructive?

    What measures is it necessary to take in order to counter pollution?

    Requiem for the forests?

    While taking an afternoon hike near Crested Butte, Colo., in July, botanist Richard Klein had a disconcerting sense of déjà-vu. The young needles on the Western spruce trees all around him had yellowed, and older needles had died and fallen off, leaving just a lonely tuft at the end of a bare branch. These were the same ominous signs Klein h2d seen in the forests of Germany - forests where one-third of the trees are dead or dying. "In Colorado we saw all the changes that lead up to a dead tree," says the University of Vermont scientist. But the symptoms had never before been reported in the Rocky Mountains.

    It is too early to write a requiem for the great forests of the United States, but long past time to start worrying. Whatever has ravaged the trees of the Northeast, killing more than half the red spuce on Whiteface Mountain in New York and Camels Hump in Vermont (map), has now spread south to the Carolinas, Georgia and Alabama - and, perhaps, west to Colorado. In Indiana, white pines were found with damaged foliage in a 1979 survey; when re-examined this year, half the trees studied had died. Researchers blame the deaths on the sulfates spewing out of power plants in the nearby Ohio Valley, but the culprit in the rest of the nation's woods is more elusive. Because the damage is worst at higher elevations, there is little doubt that some form of air pollution - ozone, lead, acid rain or what Chris Bernabo, director of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, calls "a garbage dump of pollutants" - contributes to the death of trees. But the specific cause remains a scientific mystery and a regulatory nightmare.

    Roots: Initially, acid rain was blamed for this forest dieback, and although the case against what Bermtho rails "the bogyman" has weakened, acid rain has not been ruled out. Conifers on mountains are especially vulnerable to this pollutant: their needles trap droplets (from low-lying clouds) that are many times more acidic than falling rain. In addition, acid rain leaches aluminum and   other   metals   from   the   soil, injuring or killing the tiny feeder roots that absorb water and the root fungi - called mycor-rhizae - that help take up nutrients. Indeed, the roots of the red spruce on Mount Mitchell are covered with dead or dying fungi like that produced by acid moisture in experiments. But trees have been dying even in areas where neither the soil nor the precipitation is particularly acidic. "No single cause can explain what we see at even one site," concludes Ellis Cowling of North Carolina State.

    It could be that trees are reeling under a one-two punch that occurs when pollutants such as auto exhaust react with the air to form ozone. This gas is the most toxic of the tree enemies riding the winds, and .ts destructive powers are evident in the San Bernardino Mountains east of Los Angeles. There, harvests of ponderosa pines have declined 80 per-; cent since World War II. Researchers theorize that ozone, like that from the L.A. smog, injures the waxy cuticle that covers leaves, causing breaks that let vital nutrients leak out or get washed out by acid rain.

    Concern grows in West Germany as acid rain devastates forests.

    The Bavarian forest, a German economic resource and mainstay of1 national idylls for centuries, is being ravaged by mysterious and deadly pollution resembling acid rain while the West German government, perhaps too late, is mobilizing to tackle this suddenly serious environmental threat.

    Scientists and officials in the country say the epidemic, known as Waldsterben, or forest death, is a Europe-wide crisis that will quickly cause irreversible damage from Scandinavia to the Alps, whose steep slopes risk serious erosion if the forest cover thins.

    Specialists warn that one-third of southern West Germany's forests already are sick and appear doomed. The disease, they say, has been spreading dramatically and inexplicably faster in the last year,

    Occasionally, the foliage turns yellow, but more often, according to Dr. Peter Schutt. head of Munich University's biology department, the trees simply lose their needles, becoming transparent, especially near the top. The sick trees, producing less organic matter, cannot withstand attacks of disease, insects or wind and eventually die.

    "They stand, silent and bald, in a dead forest," Dr. Schutt said.

    While airborne acidity, damaging lakes and soil, has been recognized as an environmental problem, forest death seems a new, more deadly variant.  In  some cases  in  Bavaria, 100-year-old pines have died in six weeks. Dr. Schutt said.

    The West German government, confronted with a growing domestic outcry in the press and among political factions, has abruptly shed its former complacency about the problem of acid rain and started campaigning for urgent remedial action.

    Despite industrialists' resistance to new costs, there are signs that West Germany will impose tougher standards on coal-burning industries. Particularly power plants, and introduce lead-free gasoline in an effort to reduce the sulfur and nitrogen emissions blamed for acid rain.

    Until recently. West Germany shared the official skepticism of the U.S., British and French governments about the scale of damage attributable to acid rain and* questioned whether enough was known about the problem to impose expensive counteractions. In addition, some' polluting countries, such as Britain and France, export pollution while suffering comparatively little, and thus have less incentive for action.

    The Londoner and his Parks

    Londoners use their royal parks, once the private pleasure grounds of kings, as a background where they can pursue their diverse activities, in their own often solitary ways. While a sunny day may temporarily cram the parks with lunchtime sun-seekers, it is more unlikely times - a wet afternoon, a soft evening, or early in the morning—that the intimate side of a Londoner's relationship with his parks is so subtly revealed. Both Hyde Park and Regent Park lie within a 15-mimite stroll from Oxford Circus. In the heart of either it is possible to be far out of sight and smell of traffic, oblivious of the city and even of other people, surrounded only by lawns, flowers or tall trees where a startling variety of wild birds nest and breed. Here, Londoners come in ones and twos to breathe the fresh air, collect their thoughts and be themselves.

    Crisis ahead in our national parks.

    Expansion and building of many recreation areas across the US are at a standstill — with foreseeable future.

    Alaska's new Gates of the Arctic National Park contains no substantial roads or buildings and has a permanent staff of three-based 200 miles away – and a few seasonal helpers to cover an area the size of Switzerland.

    The expansion of Manassas National Battlefield Park Va., approved by Congress to project the site of two major Civil War engagements from commercial development, has not been accomplished and may never be.

    Both cases illustrate a growing crisis in America's national parks: Although the system has more than doubled in the size since 1971 to 79 million acres, the government has not provided enough money to make the lands the treasures that citizens have come to expect.

    Planners estimate that it would cast up to 1.2 billion dollars to acquire the land authorized for new or expanded parks, and about the same amount to rebuild the system to the state of excellence it once boasted.

    Now, even in such long-established sites as Yellow-stone and Yosemite,  roads are becoming potholed, bridges on hiking trails are collapsing, and recreational activities have been curtailed. Some new parks that have been authorized by Congress exist in little more than name.

    "America's national parks are becoming a national disgrace because of  the    government's neglect," charges Paul. C. Pritchard, president of the National Parks and Conservation Association, a citizen-funded environmental group. "The government's neglect of these resources, supposedly to save a  few dollars, will  cost  us  dearly  in  the long run."

    A main target of criticism is James Watt, Secretary of the Interior Department, parent agency for the National Park Service. Conservationists say ha is frustrating congressional mandates by refusing to buy much of the land approved by law.

    Preserving the environment.

    Recently more and more attention has been focused on the problem of preserving the environment. The fact that a Government Ministry called the Department of the Environment has been created shows how "important the issue is considered to be.

    Over the past thirty years or so the quality of many people's lives has deteriorated in some respects because of technological progress. Those people    living near airports are constantly assailed by the noise of increasingly larger and more powerful jet aircraft taking off and landing. We have ugly buildings which have sprung up in towns and cities. Some ' of these are blocks of flats - high-rise buildings built because of the high price of land, which seem more like breeding boxes than houses where people have space to live Worse still much of our building effort has been channeled into the construction of more and more large office blocks at the expense of much needed housing for the growing urban population.

    The motor car has been responsible for many changes in the environment. On the one hand it has brought mobility to millions of people but on the other it has led to the construction of more and more noisy and dangerous roads and has polluted the atmosphere with exhaust fumes.

    While towns and cities have become larger and uglier and more densely populated, the rural areas have lost most of their population owing to the need for fewer workers in agriculture. The countryside has also been affected by the large-scale use of insecticides. For one thing the killing of insects has resulted in a loss of balance in the ecology. Insects, although a nuisance to farmers, provide food for birds. Many people are afraid that fruit and vegetables sprayed with chemicals may have some poisonous effect upon the people who eat them.

    Recently, however, certain counter measures against the destruction of the environment have been introduced. One of the first acts of Parliament to counter pollution was the Clean Air Act which opened the way to smokeless zones in large towns and cities. This followed a very bad winter in which many people with bronchial complaints became very ill or died through the effects of a mixture of smoke, fog and fumes known as "smog". Rivers which use to be fouled up with industrial chemical waste are now being cleaned, and fish which could not live there a few years ago can be caught again.

    From "Access to' English Turning Point" by M. Coles and B. Lord

    The Attack on Britain’s Environment.

    Most of the Western nations have the same basic environmental problems, but they take different forms in each country. Here you can read about some of the dangers facing Britain's environment.

    AIR POLLUTION. One of Britain's environmental successes has been the control of air pollution, especially in London. Thirty years ago hundreds of people died every year from the dreadful London smogs. Since then London and some other cities have become "smokeless zones", areas where no coal fires are allowed. But now the increase in traffic is threatening serious air pollution in our cities again.

    NOISE POLLUTION. Traffic and aircraft can cause serious noise pollution. Aircraft are very noisy when they take off and the noise spreads over a wide area. Heathrow airport, near London, is one of the busiest airports in the world. Planes are only allowed to take off and land at Heathrow between six in the morning and eleven at night, but during the day fifty planes take' off and land there every hour. Friends of the Earth suggest that the bicycle is the best way to travel because it's cheap, quiet and riding it keeps you healthy. However, there are far fewer cyclists in Britain than in some other European countries, so our roads aren't built for cycling. It can be dangerous to cycle in large cities as British motorists don't seem to notice cyclists. Some people think that only buses and bicycles should be allowed in our city centres.

    POLLUTION. The British, like many other Europeans, are becoming more and more worried about their environment. Here are some of the environmental problems we face:

    As the population of large cities like London, Birmingham and Manchester continues to grow, the pollution problems get worse.

    The air in many towns and cities has been polluted by traffic and industry.  Water pollution has been a serious problem in many British rivers.

    High-rise blocks become prisons for the people who live in them.

    We waste a great deal of valuable material. Paper, glass, metal and plastic can all be recycled.

    The number of cars and lorries Is growing all the time. They need bigger, better and more expensive roads, which often ruin the countryside Traffic In our cities is getting worse and worse.

    From "Club"

    Fertilizer pollution levels still rising

    THE TIMES (LONDON)

    The potential health hazards of nitrate pollution in drinking water is one of the most serious environment problems facing the EEC, an international symposium of scientists meeting in Dublin was told.

    The meeting on public health was told that every country in the Community has confirmed rising levels of nitrates caused by misuse or overuse   of   agriculture   fertilizers.

    Recently scientific advisers to the British Government warned the Department of the Environment that levels were rising above the safety limits during the summer drought.

    Fertilizer not absorbed by crops on parched land is washed off by heavy rain and drained into rivers.

    Nitrates are highly poisonous to young children. In adults they can lead to the formation of nitrosomanes which have been linked with cancer of the stomach.

    The British Government is resisting an EEC directive that would reduce the legally permitted levels of nitrate in public water suppliers by half from the present 100 mg per litre.

    In Dublin, Mr. Brian Croll, spokesman for the Anglian water region, said two million people in the region are likely to drink water with a nitrate content above 50 mg mark. He said British water authorities continued to favour the higher level set by the World Health Organization.

    "We have worked on these limits for at least 10 years and there are no known problems." The cost of meeting the EEC directive to provide and maintain new equipment to purify water in EEC levels in Anglia would be 65 m pounds in capital cost, and about 4.5 m pounds a year in running costs.

    The key difficulty facing the symposium was how agriculture could continue to use chemicals to good advantage without placing an unreasonable burden on the environment. The present EEC policy is that prevention is better than cure and also that the polluter must bear the costs of his actions. But there is difficulty in-identifying those responsible.

    Nitrate levels in drinking water breach safety limits, scientists report

    THE TIMES(LONDON)

    Nitrate levels in drinking water have breached recommended safety limits, a group of scientists sponsored by the Royal Society said.

    The problem is particularly acute in the South-East and Midlands where river water is drawn off during autumn and winter and stored.

    "There the nitrate concentration may intermittently exceed the World Health Organization's European recommended limits." the scientists said.

    The report discloses that nitrate concentrations have risen between Strand 400 per cent in 12 rivers where scientific data has been available for 20 years.

    The Thames, which provided the main supply of drinking water for London, increased its mean annual nitrate concentration from 2 5 milligrams per litre in 1928 to 8 mg in 1978. In 1981 and 1982, the nitrate concentration had risen above the recommended levels of 11.3 mg several times.

    In many areas, the report says, the nitrate levels will continue to rise as nitrates produced as fertilizers sink through the soil into underlying ground water. The average annual nitrate concentration in the Thames could reach 11.3 milligrams per litre in the mid-1990s, with maximum concentration well in excess.

    Britain’s Water Supply.

    Such is the present demand for water in Britain that the reuse of water is being constantly extended. Two-thirds of London's water comes out of the River Thames at Laleham for purification. At this point the river has already been through the sewage system of several Thames valley towns. York drinks water out of the River Ouse, after its tributaries have drained a number of North and West Riding towns. Nottingham takes water from the Derwent below the outflow from Derby and a large chemical works. Rivers provide most of Britain's water supply, and in inland communities they rake back most of the waste from human bodies, households and factories. Modern methods of water purification and the capacity of rivers for self-purification make possible the reuse of water, and where water is in short supply, second-hand water is regularly drunk and so far without ill effect.

    America's losing battle to save its beaches

    STORM DAMAGE AND CONSTANT EROSION ARE STRIPPING THE NATION'S, SHORELINES     DESPITE     MAN'S BEST EFFORTS

    The slender ribbon of sand that trims much of the nation's coastline is rapidly growing narrower.

    Scientists warn that natural and man-made forces - accelerated this year by a siege of devastating storms - are eroding America's beaches at an alarming rate At the same time, the sea level is rising as the pollutants of an industrial society slowly warm the earth's climate and melt polar ice.

    "Our coasts are more endangered now than ever before," says Douglas Inman, director of the Center for Coastal Studies at the Scripps Oceanographic Institute in La Jolla. Calif.

    Some of the most recent results in man's losing battle with the sea:

    -  Famed Mission Beach near San Diego - much of its sand claimed by late-winter storms - has a new nickname: "Missing Beach,"

    - A beach at Waveland. Miss., on the Gulf of Mexico, was washed away last winter only weeks after it had been rebuilt for the third time

    - Erosion has so devastated the shoreline near one South Carolina resort-and-retirement community that sales agents for a condominium development   steer  prospects  away from the ocean view until low tide because there is virtually no beach at high tide.

    The erosion problem is getting worse, experts say, because of human interference with nature's process of continuously destroying old beaches while creating new ones.

    Recent evidence indicates that sea walls and other barriers intended to check erosion may actually accelerate the process Scientists are learning that jetties, floating breakwaters and wire baskets filled with rocks can cause the waves to undermine beaches faster, thus creating a need for more structures. At the same time, replacement sand that normally would be borne to the sea by rivers is being choked off by dams built upstream.

    How swiftly are the nation's coasts eroding? The Atlantic side is losing an average of 3 feet of beach a year. The loss on the Gulf Coast is estimated at 7 feet, annually, and the scenic Pacific shoreline is vanishing at an astonishing 10 feet a year.

    The future looks even bleaker. Scientists report that carbon dioxide spewed from industrial plants and automobiles is causing a heating of the earth's atmosphere and melting polar ice.

    Skin and scan

    1.  Look through all the texts and list as many kinds of pollution as possible.

    2.  What do the initials WHO stand for?

    Vocabulary

    I. Render In English with the help of the terms used in the texts.

    природоохранные меры; сохранение природы; контроль за выбросом вредных веществ; поставить заслон вредным выбросам экологи; акция "Чистый воздух"; превышать допустимые нормы; превышать среднемировой уровень; содержать в избытке; отравлять атмосферу вредными выбросами; загрязнения электростанциями; остатки несгоревшего автомобильного топлива; вредные для здоровья примас;: или производства; целая гамма вредных веществ; химикаты; удобрения; средства для истребления насекомых; сера; соли серной кислоты; азот; окислы азота; содержание азота; азотное загрязнение; снижать уровень выделений, содержащих соединения серы и азота; углерод; двуокись углерода; автомобильное топливо без содержания свинца; воздействие человека на природу; нарушение экологического равновесия; экологический беспредел; размывание, подтопление; верхний пласт; размытый водой; территории под домами; лесопарк; острая проблема; катастрофический; мрачное будущее; засохшие деревья; разбитый асфальт; ветхий; неуютный; экологически опасный; зона отдыха; перерабатывать мусор приземной слой воздуха; экологическое законодательство; загрязнять промышленными химическими отходами; очищать воду; очистка воды; самоочистка; вторично используемая вода; питьевая вода; грунтовая вода; возлагать непомерное бремя на; предприятия, загрязняющие окружающую среду; нести ответственность за свои действия; срочная восстановительная работа.

    2. Translate into Russian the following terms:

    carbon dioxide - carbon monoxide;

    hydrogen - hydrocarbon.

    3. Explain points of difference in the string of words:

    a) litter - garbage - refuse - sewage – waste;

    b)  dustbin - garbage-can - refuse dump;

    c)  petrol - gasoline;

    d)  main - sewer

    e)  sulfur - sulphur, sulfates - sulphates.

    Viewpoint

    Comment on the following passages.

    1) Water pollution. There has been bad pollution of Britain's rivers, and the government has tried to stop it. There are now strict laws against water pollution, though It still quite often happens accidentally. Britain and France share the problem of oil pollution from the Channel. This has caused great damage to beaches and wild-life.

    2)  Since then London and some other cities have become "smokeless zones", areas where no coal fires are allowed.

    3)  High-rise blocks became prisons for the people who live in them.

    4) Cars and roads. The need for new roads causes great environmental difficulties. They often spoil the countryside and bring noise and air pollution to thousands of homes. Since 1958 the population of Britain has increased by II per cent, but the number of cars has increased by 400 per cent.  Cars cause other problems too: thousands of people die in car accidents car parks use valuable space in towns and cities; cars use a lot of our limited amount of oil.

    5) The future looks even bleaker. Scientists report that carbon dioxide spewed from industrial plants and automobiles is causing a heating of the earth's atmosphere and melting polar ice.


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