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    Система образования в США
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    Сергеева Татьяна Николаевна

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    Doctor’s Degree

    (e.g. Ph.D)

    Master’s Degree

    (e.g. M.A., M.S.)

    Bachelor’s Degree

    (e.g. B.A., B.S.)

















































    =School Year)





    Text 1. General Pattern of Education in the USA

    The general pattern of education in the USA is an eight-year elementary school, followed by a four-year high school. This has been called 8 – 4 plan organization. It is proceeded, in many localities,  by nursery schools and kindergartens. It is followed by a four-year college and professional schools. This traditional patterns, however, has been varied in many different ways. The 6 - 3 – 3 plan consists of a six-year elementary school, a three-year junior high school, and a three-year senior high school. Another variation is 6 – 6 plan organization, with a six-year elementary school followed by a six-year secondary school.

    American education provides a program for children, beginning at the age of 6 and continuing up to the age of 16 in some of the states, and to 18 in others.

    The elementary school in the United States is generally considered to include the first six or eight grades of the common-school system, depending upon the organization that has been accepted for the secondary school. It has been called the “grade school” or the “grammar school”.

    There is no single governmental agency to prescribe for the American school system, different types of organization and of curriculum are tried out.

    The length of the school year varies among the states. Wide variations exists also in the length of the school day. A common practice is to have school in session from 9:00 to 12:00 in the morning and from 1:00 to 3:30 in the afternoon, Monday through Friday. The school day for the lower grades is often from 30 minutes to an hour shorter. Most schools require some homework to be done by elementary pupils.


    1. What is the general pattern of education in the USA?
    2. What are the variations of the traditional 8 – 4 plan?
    3. When do children begin to go to school?
    4. What is the length of the school year in the USA?
    5. Which days of the week is school in session?

    Text 2. School Curriculum

    From Hawaii to Delaware, from Alaska to Louisiana, each of the 50 states in the USA has its own laws regulating education. From state to state some laws are similar, others are not. For example, all states require young people to attend school (the age limits vary: seven to sixteen, six to eighteen, etc.). Though there is no national curriculum in the united States, certain subjects are taught across the country. Almost every elementary school provides instruction in these subjects: mathematics, language arts(a subject that includes reading, grammar, composition and literature), penmanship, science, social studies (a subject that includes history, geography, citizenship and economics), music, art and physical education. In many elementary schools courses in the use of computers have been introduced. And in some cases, a foreign language is offered in the upper elementary school. Not all schools offer any foreign languages, if they do, if they do, it usually lasts for no longer than half a year. In general, it is not necessary to study a foreign language to get a high school diploma. But if one plans to enter a college or university, one should study a foreign language for no less than two years.

    penmanship – каллиграфия, чистописание

    citizenship - права и обязанности граждан


    1. Are the laws regulating education the same across the USA?
    2. What are the subjects offered in elementary schools?
    3. What courses have been introduced in elementary schools?
    4. Is it necessary to study a foreign language to get a high school diploma in the USA?
    5. How long should a student study a foreign language at high school before entering a college?

    Text 3. Elementary Schools, High Schools and Institutions of Higher Learning

    There are eight years of elementary schooling. The elementary school is followed by four years of secondary school, or high school. Often the last two years of elementary and the first years of secondary school are combined into a junior high school.

    The school year is nine months in length, beginning early in September and continuing until about the first of June, with a vacation of week or two at Christmas time and sometimes a shorter one in spring. There are slight variations from place to place. Students enter the first grade at the age of six and attendance is compulsory in most states until the age of sixteen or until the student has finished the eighth grade.

    The elementary schools tend to be small. The high schools are generally larger and accommodate pupils from four or five elementary schools. A small town generally has several elementary schools and one high school. In some rural communities the one-room country school house still exists. Here may be found from five to twenty-five pupils in grades one through eight, all taught by the same teacher.

    Admission to the American high school is automatic on completion of the elementary school. During the four-year high school program the student studies four or five major subjects per year, and classes in each of these subjects meet for an hour a day, five days a week. In addition, the students usually has classes in physical education, music and art several times a week. If he fails a course, he repeats only that course and not the work of the entire year. Students must complete a certain number of courses in order to receive a diploma, or a certificate of graduation.

    Institutions of higher learning supported by public funds are not absolutely free. The state colleges and universities charge a fee for tuition or registration. This fee is higher for those who come from outside the state. Working one’s way through college is common-place.

    Usually there is no admission examination required by a state university for those who have finished high school within the state. Sometimes a certain pattern of high school studies is necessary, however, and some state universities require a certain scholastic average, or average of high school grades.

    Private colleges and universities, especially the larger, well-known ones such as Harvard, Princeton, and Yale, have rigid scholastic requirements for entrance, including an examination.

    It usually takes four years to meet the requirements for a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. A Master of Art or Master of Science degree may be obtained in one or two additional years. The highest academic degree is the Doctor of Philosophy. It may take any number of years to complete the original research work necessary to obtain this degree.

    Task 1. Find sentences that give the information about:

    1. the school year;
    2. a one-room country school house;
    3. the subjects studied at high school;
    4. fee for tuition;
    5. academic degrees.

    Task 2. Find sentences with the following words and phrases in the text and translate them into Russian:

    vacation, attendance is compulsory, to accommodate, rural community, a one-room country school house, to be taught by the same teacher, admission to school, major subjects, to receive a diploma, a fee for tuition.


    1. When does the school year begin?
    2. Are elementary schools big or small?
    3. Do one-room country school houses still exist?
    4. What does the curriculum in high school include?
    5. Are there any admission exams required by universities?
    6. Is higher education free of charge or fee-paying?
    7. What academic degrees exist in the USA?

    Text 4. Public Education: Historical Review

    The history of education in the United States has certain peculiarities which are closely connected with the specific conditions of life in the New World and the history of the American society.

    The early Colonies and different politics of education for the first white settler who came to the North America from Europe in the 17th century brought with them he educational ideas of the time most typical of the countries they represented. In Virginia and South Carolina, for example, education was entirely private. The children of the rich either had tutors or were sent to Europe for schooling. Many of the children of poor parents had no education at all. In Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York many of the schools were set up and controlled by the church.

    In Massachusetts, which was much more developed at that time, three educational principles were laid down: 1) the right of the State or Colony to require that its citizens be educated; 2) the right of the State to compel the local government decision such as towns and cities, to establish schools; and 3) the right of the local government to support these schools by taxation.

    At the very beginning, school buildings were often rough shacks. They were poorly equipped with a few benches, a stove, and rarely enough textbooks. Discipline was harsh, and a corporal punishment was frequent.

    The program of studies consisted largely of reading, writing, basic arithmetic, and Bible lessons. Since each community was responsible for solving its own educational problems, there was no attempt to find a common standard of excellence. Even the Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1789, contained no direct mention of education.

    The schools of the early 1800s were not very different from those of the pre-revolutionary period. Some historians consider hat they actually deteriorated in the three or four decades following the American Revolution, for the new country turned its attention to the development of its land, cities, and political institutions.

    And yet, in attempt to generate interests in education, a number of communities continued founding schools. Some classes were opened to children for secular instruction and a number of schools for poor children which were a forerunner of the public schools in several major cities. Some States tax-supported schools and urged their spread.

    The purpose of the public or “common” schools was to teach the pupils the skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic. No particular religion was to be taught.

    By the mid-19th century, the desire for free public education was widespread. But the States couldn’t find enough means for its financial support. It was during those years that communities began to support the schools within their boundaries. The States finally required local school districts to tax themselves for that purpose through the “real property” tax. This tax originated as financial support for public schools, and remain today the major financial resource for the public school system in the United States though it can no longer carry the entire burden.

    Towards the second part of the 19th century compulsory attendance laws came into effect, starting with Massachusetts in 1852 Now in most States the minimum age at which a pupil may leave school is sixteen; in five States seventeen; and in four States eighteen.

    As has already been mentioned, education remains primarily a function of the States. Each State has a board of education, usually 3 to 9 members, serving mostly without pay. They are either elected by the public or appointed by the Governor. The board has an executive officer, usually called a State school superintendent or commissioner. In some cases he is elected; in others he is appointed by the board.

    In theory, responsibility for operating the public educational system is local. Schools are under the jurisdiction of local school board, composed of citizens elected by residents of the school district. In fact, however, much local control has been superseded. State laws determine the length of the school year, the way in which teachers will be certified, and many of the courses which must be taught.

    Though the Federal Government has no powers at all in the field of education, from time to time Congress passes different Acts which help to “assist in the expansion and improvement of educational programs to meet critical national needs”. Such Acts provide money for science, mathematics, and language instruction; for the purchase of laboratory equipment.

    TASK 1.

    Make up a list of words which can be joined under the headline “Education”. Give reasons for your choice.

    TASK 2. Discussion.

    • Describe the development of education from the 17th through the 19th centuries.
    • State the role of the Church.
    • Comment on the three principles of education laid down in Massachusetts.
    • Express your attitude towards corporal punishment.
    • Tell the story of the “real property” tax.
    • Say how the public education system operates nowadays.

    Text 5. Higher Education

    There are about 3,000 colleges and universities, both private and public, in the United States. Students have to pay to go both private and  State universities. Private universities are generally smaller but very expensive, which means that the tuition fees are extremely high. State colleges and universities are not that expensive, the tuition fees are usually lower, and if the students are State residents, they pay much less.

    Every young person who enters a higher educational institution can get financial assistance. If a student is offered a loan, he should repay it (with interest) after he has left the college. Needy students are awarded grants which they do not have to repay. Scholarships are given when a student is doing exceptionally well at school.

    American universities and colleges are usually built as a separate complex, called “campus”, with teaching blocks, libraries, dormitories, and many other facilities grouped together on one site, often on the outskirts of the city. Some universities are comprised of many campuses. The University of California, for example, has 9 campuses, the biggest being Berkeley (founded in 1868), San Francisco (1873), Los Angeles (1919), Santa Barbara (1944), Santa Cruz (1965).

    All the universities are independent, offering their own choice of studies, setting their own admission standards and deciding which students meet their standards. The greater the prestige of the university, the higher the credits and grades required.

    The terms “college” and “university” are often used interchangeably, as “college” is used to refer to all undergraduate education; and the our-year undergraduate program, leading to a bachelor’s degree, can be followed at either college or university. Universities tend to be larger than colleges and also have graduate schools where students can receive post-graduate education. Advanced or graduate university degrees include law and medicine.

    Most colleges and universities undergraduate courses last for four years. During the first two years students usually follow general courses in the art or sciences and then choose a major – the subject or area of studies in which they concentrate. The other subjects are called minors. Credits (with grades) are awarded for the successful completion of each course. These credits are often transferable, so students ho have not done well in high school can choose a junior college (or community college), which offers a two-year “transfer” program preparing students for degree-granting institutions. Community colleges also offer two-year courses of vocational nature, leading to technical and semi-professional occupations, such as journalism.

    There are no final examinations at colleges and universities, and students receive a degree if they have collected enough credits in a particular subject. The traditional degree which crowns the undergraduate course is that of a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) or a Bachelor of Science (B.C.) The lower level of graduate school is for obtaining the Master’s Degree (M.A. or M.C.), and the upper level is for the degree of a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


    tuition fee                                плата за обучение

    loan                                        заем

    interest                                зд. процент (с суммы взятой взаймы)

    to repay                                возмещать, возвращать

    needy                                        нуждающийся

    grant                                        субсидия, дотация

    scholarship                                стипендия

    dormitory (dorm)                        студенческое общежитие

    bachelor’s degree                        степень бакалавра

    Bachelor of Arts                        бакалавр гуманитарных наук

    Bachelor of Science                бакалавр естественных наук

    graduate school                        аспирантура

    the arts                                гуманитарные науки

    the science(s)                        естественные науки

    major                                        предмет специализации

    “transfer” program                        подготовительный курс

    Master’s Degree                        степень магистра наук

    (M.A. or M.S.)                        (гуманитарных или естественных)

    Doctor of Philosophy                степень доктора наук

    TASK 1. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

    1. The system of university education in the US is centralized.
    2. There is no difference between private and State universities.
    3. A University course usually lasts for four years.
    4. One can obtain a bachelor’s degree at any college or University.
    5. There are no special advanced University degrees.
    6. Any University has only one campus.
    7. There are no colleges which offer “transfer” programs.
    8. M.A., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees are research degrees.

    TASK 2. Additional text. Read and translate without using the dictionary.


    Higher education began in the United States in 1636, when Harvard College was founded in Massachusetts. The aim was to train men for service in church and civil state. Yale College, Princeton University, Columbia University are the oldest and the most famous American higher educational institutions.

    Now there are about 3,000 colleges and universities, both private and public, in the United States. Students have to pay to enter universities.

    All the universities are independent, offering their own choice of studies, setting their own admission standards. Higher educational institutions usually are governed by a board of trustees.

    Most colleges and universities undergraduate courses last for four years. During the first two years students usually follow general courses in the art or sciences and then choose a major – the subject or area of studies in which they concentrate. The other subjects are called minors. Credits (with grades) are awarded for the successful completion of each course.

    A college grants a bachelor’s degree at the conclusion of studies.

    A college prepares the student for either graduate study leading to master’s or doctor’s degree or a job immediately after graduation.

    Students are classified as freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors

    All students who have graduated from the senior class and who continue studying at a university are classified as graduate students. Scholarships are given when a student is doing exceptionally well at school.

    American universities and colleges are usually built as a separate complex, called “campus”, with teaching blocks, libraries, dormitories, and many other facilities grouped together.

    TASK 3. Discuss the following:

    1. Different types of colleges and Universities.
    2. The structure of American graduate school.
    3. American and Russian Universities. (Pay special attention to the entrance standards and admission policies).

    Text 6. World famous

    The most famous American higher educational institutions that were already in operation during the early period came into being through the religious zeal and philanthropy of their founders.

    Higher education began in the United States long time ago, when the Puritan leaders of the settlement called the Massachusetts Bay Colony founded in 1636 Harvard College (Massachusetts). Established by John Harvard, English clergyman, this college was to turn into the most famous of the American Universities.

    The College of William and Mary (Virginia, 1693) was the second institution of higher education founded in the Colonies. In 1701 Connecticut Puritans established Yale College (Connecticut).

    All these Colonial colleges which were gradually turned into Universities with classical education established a balance between the Humanities and Science. Their aim was to train men for service in church and civil state.

    By the 1770s several more colleges had been opened: University of Pennsylvania (1740), Princeton University (1746), Washington and Lee University (1749), Columbia University (1754), Brown University (1764), Rutgers College (1766), Dartmouth College (1769).

    Though the colleges in the first half of the 19th century were numerous and widely scattered over the settled area, their enrollments were comparatively small. Since 1870s the colleges have developed enormously. Their resources have multiplied, the number of their students has increased by leaps and bounds, the program of studies has broadened and deepened, the standards have been raised, and the efficiency of the instruction has greatly increased. Rigidly prescribed courses of study have given way to elective courses.

    In the course of time, when research centres and experiment stations were attached to the Universities, these institutions turned into the strongholds of science and higher education. They developed a unique, typically American structure unlike ant other existing University system in the world.

    TASK 1.

    Give a review of University education in its historical development.

    TASK 2.

    Using the text and your background knowledge, describe one of the American Universities.

    Text 7. Higher Educational Institutions

    It has become common for the college program to be divided into broad fields, such as language and literature, the social science, the science and mathematics, and the fine arts. Many colleges require all freshmen and sophomores to take one or two full-year courses in each of three fields. Certain courses, such as English or history, may be required for all, with some election permitted in the other fields.

    Higher educational institutions usually are governed by a board of regents or a board of trustees.

    The executive head of a college or a university is usually called the president. The various colleges or schools which take up a university are headed by deans. Within a school or a college there may be departments according to subject matter fields, each of which may be headed by a chairman. Other members of the faculty hold academic ranks, such as instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, and professor. Graduate students who give some part-time service may be designated as graduate assistants or fellows.

    Professional education in fields such as agriculture, dentistry, law, engineering, medicine, pharmacy, teaching, etc. Is pursued in professional schools which may be part of a university or may be separate institutions which confine their instruction to a single profession. Often two, three, or four years of pre-professional liberal arts education are required before admission to a professional school. Three to five years of specialized training lead to professional degrees such as Doctor of Medicine, Bachelor of Law, etc.


    • Freshman                                студент–первокурсник
    • Sophomore                                студент второго курса
    • graduate student                        аспирант
    • to govern                                        управлять
    • regent                                        член правления университета
    • a board of regents                        Совет управителей
    • a board of trustees                        Совет попечителей
    • executive head                                глава исполнительной власти
    • President of the University                ректор университета
    • instructor = professor                        преподаватель
    • to pursue                                        заниматься, преследовать цель
    • to confine                                ограничивать
    • to designate                                назначать (на должность)
    • liberal arts courses                        гуманитарные науки
    • university fellow                        стипендиат

    TASK 1. Look through the text and say which of its paragraphs gives information about:

    1. professional education;
    2. the broad fields into which the college education may be divided into;
    3. the administration of a college.

    TASK 2. Find answers to the following questions:

    1. Which are the fields the college program is commonly divided into?
    2. Which courses do many colleges require all freshmen and sophomores to take?
    3. Who usually governs higher educational institutions?
    4. Who is the executive head of a college or a university?
    5. Who governs the department of a college or school?
    6. Who are other members of the faculty?
    7. How are graduate students who give some part-time service called?
    8. What professional education fields can you name?
    9. How many years of pre-professional liberal arts education are required?
    10. How many years of specialized training are required for getting a degree?


    American colleges and universities are either public or private, that is, supported by public funds or supported privately by a church group or other groups acting as private citizens although under a state charter.

    A public institution is owned and operated by a government, either a state or a municipal government. He government appropriates large sums of money for the institution’s expenses. Yet these sums are normally not sufficient to cover all expenses, and so the institution is partially dependent on student fees and on gifts.

    A private institution receives no direct financial aid from any government, municipal, state or federal. The money used to pay the operating expenses has a threefold origin: tuition fees paid by the students, money given in the form of gifts for immediate use, and the income from invested capital in the possession of the institution and originally received by the institution in the form of the gifts to be invested with only the income to be spent.

    Of the nation’s nearly 1,900 institutions of higher learning roughly one-third are state or city institutions. About 1,200 are privately controlled. Approximately 700 of these are controlled by religious groups. Less than half of these institutions are liberal art colleges and universities which stress the languages, history, science and philosophy. The rest are professional and technological schools and junior colleges.

    A college is usually defined as an institution of higher learning which offers a course of instruction over a four-year period, and which grants a bachelor’s degree at the conclusion of studies. As part of university, a college graduate is distinguished from a graduate of professional school. However, the professional schools in some universities are called colleges.

    A college prepares the student for two things: either graduate study leading to master’s or doctor’s degree or a job immediately after graduation. A student who majors in business administration for example, may be fully prepared for a career in business when he has finished college.

    On the other hand, a student majoring in psychology often must do a great deal of graduate work before he is competent in this field.

    Students are classified as freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors. A freshman is a first year student, a sophomore, a second year student, a junior, a third year student, and a senior, a fourth year student. All students who have graduated from the senior class and who continue studying at a university are classified as advanced students or graduate students. Some graduate students receive grants which cover the cost of their education; a person on such a fellowship is called a university fellow.

    TASK 1. Skim through the text and say which of its paragraphs gives information about:

    1. classification of students;
    2. what is a college;
    3. what a college prepares the student for;
    4. what is a public institution;
    5. what is a private institution.

    TASK 2.

    • Say what information given in the text specifies the old facts you knew.
    • Say which facts given in the text were new for you.

    TASK 3. Additional text. Read the text (using the dictionary if necessary) and find the information about:

    1. social origin of drop-outs;
    2. the reasons which keep the people out of college in the USA;
    3. courses of study which have a lower pay-off in the job market in the USA.

    Colleges Which are as Different as Geese Are Different From Swans

    Entering a college does not mean much in itself. What is meaningful is how long students stay and what college they enter. Many people enter a college, take one or two courses, and drop out.

    More than half of al students who enter colleges drop out before graduation. The drop-outs are more often from middle class than upper America, and more often from blue-collar than from professional families. It is the college degree that really counts in the world of work and income. Anything less than a degree is not much better than high school graduation. Students enter colleges that are different as geese from swans. In the range are Negro junior college of Natchez, say, and Harvard. Again: in the world of work and income, the difference is huge.

    High costs, high admission standards, the need to work – all conspires to keep the sons of middle America out of college. Seldom will they enter a first-rate university, except on an athletic scholarship. At best, they go to a junior college or perhaps even a state college.

    Middle Americans are more often part-time students than the affluent (=rich ones). Many must limit their college work to an occasional course in the evening. They usually enter a course of study that has a low pay-off in the job market – such as teaching, social work, nursing, etc.

    Nationally, only about one of four boys go to college after the high school classes. According to the National Science Foundation, the main reason the other three do not attend is inadequate financial resources.


    Requirements for teachers’ certificate vary among 50 states. Usually the state department of education, or a state certificate board, issues certificates which permit teachers to be employed within the state. Forty-four of the 50 states require at least the completion of a four-year course, with the bachelor’s degree, as a minimum for high school teaching: the tendency to require a fifth year beyond the bachelor’s degree is increasing. Graduation from a two-year normal school or at least two years of college education is the minimum requirement for elementary teaching in 36 states; others demand the completion of a four-year course and the bachelor’s degree.

    Because of the decentralization of school control in the USA teachers are employed by local districts rather than by the national government. The American teacher does not have the absolute security of tenure which the French or Australian teachers enjoys. A high proportion of the teaching force are women.

    The teacher-training institutions have not been able to provide sufficient numbers of fully trained teachers to replace those retiring and dropping out of the profession and at the same time to meet the requirements for new classes each year. The problem of recruiting and supply of teachers remains a serious one. In general the problem of shortage of teachers has not been met by lowering certificate standards.

    requirement – требование

    certificate board – аттестационная комиссия

    normal school – педагогическое училище

    security of tenure [′tenju∂] – сохранность рабочего места

    shortage – нехватка

    to be in force – являться действительным

    TASK 1. Answer the questions:

    1. Are the requirements for teachers the same or are they different among the 50 states?
    2. Who usually issues certificates for teaching?
    3. What is the minimum requirement for the teacher of high school?
    4. What is the minimum requirement for elementary teaching?
    5. How does the decentralization of school control concern employment of teachers?
    6. Does the American teachers enjoy the absolute security of tenure?
    7. Are the more men or women teachers in the USA?
    8. Which are the major problems in the teaching profession in the USA?
    9.  Are teachers’ certificates in force throughout the country or only within a given state?
    10. Why were certification standards lowered?


    TASK 1. Check up your knowing of the subject answering the following questions:

    1. Is public education in the USA centralized?
    2. Is there a unified system of education in the USA?
    3. At what age do children begin to attend school in the USA?
    4. What is a high school in the USA?
    5. What is an elementary school in the USA?
    6. If a person studies at a state university or college, does it mean that his education is absolutely free or does he still pay tuition fee?
    7. Is tuition fee the same for those who live in the state and for those who come from outside the state?
    8. Do private colleges and universities require an admission examination?
    9. Do private colleges and universities have rigid scholastic requirements for entrance?
    10. What is the duration of a school year in the USA?
    11. Which are the best higher educational institutions in the USA, are they private or public?
    12. What is the classification of the first-, second-, third- and fourth-year students in the USA?


    1. The pattern of education in the USA and in Russia.
    2. Teaching profession in the USA and in Russia.
    3. Higher educational institutions in the USA, public and private, the quality of education in them.
    4. History of establishing some of the colleges in the USA.
    5. Elementary and high school in the USA.
    6. The system of pre-school, school and higher education in Russia.
    7. Types of schools in the USA and differences between them.

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